Cookies on Invasive Species Compendium

Like most websites we use cookies. This is to ensure that we give you the best experience possible.

Continuing to use www.cabi.org means you agree to our use of cookies. If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use.

Datasheet

Jasminum fluminense (Brazilian jasmine)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 23 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Jasminum fluminense
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Brazilian jasmine
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • J. fluminense is an invasive woody vine included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012) and classified...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Jasminum fluminense (jasmine); climbing habit at Spreckelsville, Maui.  April 29, 2009.
TitleInvasive, climbing habit
CaptionJasminum fluminense (jasmine); climbing habit at Spreckelsville, Maui. April 29, 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2009. CC-BY-3.0
Jasminum fluminense (jasmine); climbing habit at Spreckelsville, Maui.  April 29, 2009.
Invasive, climbing habitJasminum fluminense (jasmine); climbing habit at Spreckelsville, Maui. April 29, 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2009. CC-BY-3.0
Jasminum fluminense (jasmine); invasive habit. Nr Kahului Airport, Maui. November 16, 2006
TitleInvasive habit
CaptionJasminum fluminense (jasmine); invasive habit. Nr Kahului Airport, Maui. November 16, 2006
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2006- CC-BY-3.0
Jasminum fluminense (jasmine); invasive habit. Nr Kahului Airport, Maui. November 16, 2006
Invasive habitJasminum fluminense (jasmine); invasive habit. Nr Kahului Airport, Maui. November 16, 2006 ©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2006- CC-BY-3.0
Jasminum fluminense (jasmine); habit. Nr Kahului Airport, Maui. November 16, 2006
TitleHabit, showing foliage
CaptionJasminum fluminense (jasmine); habit. Nr Kahului Airport, Maui. November 16, 2006
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2006- CC-BY-3.0
Jasminum fluminense (jasmine); habit. Nr Kahului Airport, Maui. November 16, 2006
Habit, showing foliageJasminum fluminense (jasmine); habit. Nr Kahului Airport, Maui. November 16, 2006©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2006- CC-BY-3.0
Jasminum fluminense (jasmine); leaves. Nr Kahului Airport, Maui.  November 16, 2006
TitleFoliage
CaptionJasminum fluminense (jasmine); leaves. Nr Kahului Airport, Maui. November 16, 2006
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2006- CC-BY-3.0
Jasminum fluminense (jasmine); leaves. Nr Kahului Airport, Maui.  November 16, 2006
FoliageJasminum fluminense (jasmine); leaves. Nr Kahului Airport, Maui. November 16, 2006©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2006- CC-BY-3.0
Jasminum fluminense (jasmine); flowers and leaves at Spreckelsville, Maui, Hawaii.  April 29, 2009.
TitleFlowers and foliage
CaptionJasminum fluminense (jasmine); flowers and leaves at Spreckelsville, Maui, Hawaii. April 29, 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2006- CC-BY-3.0
Jasminum fluminense (jasmine); flowers and leaves at Spreckelsville, Maui, Hawaii.  April 29, 2009.
Flowers and foliageJasminum fluminense (jasmine); flowers and leaves at Spreckelsville, Maui, Hawaii. April 29, 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2006- CC-BY-3.0
Brazilian jasmine (Jasminum fluminense); foliage and mature fruits.
TitleMature fruits
CaptionBrazilian jasmine (Jasminum fluminense); foliage and mature fruits.
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
Brazilian jasmine (Jasminum fluminense); foliage and mature fruits.
Mature fruitsBrazilian jasmine (Jasminum fluminense); foliage and mature fruits.©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Jasminum fluminense Vell, 1825

Preferred Common Name

  • Brazilian jasmine

Other Scientific Names

  • Jasminum azoricum subsp. bahiense (DC.) Eichler
  • Jasminum azoricum var. fluminense (Vell.) Eichler
  • Jasminum bahiense DC

International Common Names

  • English: Gold Coast jasmine; jasmine
  • French: jasmin à bouget; jasmine blanc
  • Spanish: jasmin canario; jasmin de trapo; jasmin oloroso

Local Common Names

  • Bahamas: Azores jasmine
  • Cuba: jazmin de oryza
  • Dominican Republic: jasmin; jazmin café; jazmin de heno; jazmin de Virginia; mora
  • Haiti: jasmin; jasmin de St. Domingue
  • Jamaica: Azores jasmine
  • Lesser Antilles: ink vine; jasmen blan; jasmen bouke; wild jasmine
  • Puerto Rico: jazmín de canario

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

J. fluminense is an invasive woody vine included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012) and classified as aggressive, troublesome and difficult to control in the tropics and subtropics (Francis, 2004; Langeland et al., 2008; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; PIER, 2012). J. fluminense spreads by seeds and vegetatively by cuttings and lateral extensions of the stems (Francis, 2004). This invasive species has the potential to invaded natural undisturbed forests and modify plant communities by displacing native species, changing community structures and altering ecological functions. J. fluminense is a vigorous vine that climbs high into the canopy of mature forests, completely smothering native trees, out-competing understory plants, and reducing plant diversity (Francis, 2004; Langeland et al., 2008; González-Torres et al., 2012).

J. fluminense is classified as a “weed” in the United States (i.e., Florida and Hawaii, Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011; USDA-NRCS, 2012), the Bahamas, Puerto Rico, and the Dominican Republic (Wagner et al., 1999; Motooka et al., 2003; Francis, 2004; Langeland et al., 2008; Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012). In Cuba, this species is listed as one of the most noxious invasive species affecting and transforming natural environments (González-Torres et al., 2012).

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Oleales
  •                         Family: Oleaceae
  •                             Genus: Jasminum
  •                                 Species: Jasminum fluminense

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

The family Oleaceae includes about 24 genera and 615 species of trees, shrubs, and occasionally woody vines. Members of this family have a worldwide distribution in tropical, subtropical, and temperate climates (Stevens, 2012). The highest biodiversity can be found in Southeastern Asia and Australia, yet the number of species is also important in China, Africa and North America (Govaerts, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2012). Many members of this family within the genera Olea, Ligustrum, Fraxinus, Forestiera, Jasminum, and Syringa are economically important as ornamentals and for fruits and wood (Stevens, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2012).

The genus Jasminum includes about 450 species distributed in Asia, Africa, Australia, and some in America (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; Govaerts, 2012).

Description

Top of page

Evergreen, woody, and twining vine reaching 4-6 metres in length. Stems are cylindrical, pubescent, attaining 1 cm in diameter, glabrescent when mature. Lateral branches are numerous. Leaves are opposite, trifoliolate, 5-10 cm long; leaflets 2-5 × 2-3.5 cm (terminal leaflet larger than the lateral ones), broadly ovate, involute, the apex acute or acuminate, the base sub-truncate, the margins entire; upper surface puberulent; lower surface with the mid-vein prominent, barbate in the axils of the secondary veins; petioles and petiolules pubescent, the petioles 0.5-2 cm long. Inflorescences are arranged in axillary cymes with numerous fragrant flowers; peduncles 3-4 cm long; pedicels 3-4 mm long, densely pubescent. Calyx green, approximately 3 mm long, campanulate, with 4-9 small acuminate lobes; corolla white,1.5-2.5 cm long, with 4-9 lobes; stamens 2; ovary 4-lobate, the stigma bilobate. Fruit is a purple or almost blackberry, shiny, globose, 5-8 mm in diameter (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005).

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Vine / climber
Woody

Distribution

Top of page

J. fluminense is native to Tropical Africa and the Arabian Peninsula (Hammer, 2000; Francis, 2004; Govaerts, 2012). This species has been widely cultivated as an ornamental and its current distribution includes Mexico, Florida, the West Indies, Central America, Brazil, and islands in the Pacific (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Govaerts, 2012; PIER, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2012; for details see distribution table).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

Saudi ArabiaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2012
YemenPresentNativeGovaerts, 2012Socotra

Africa

AngolaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2012
BotswanaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2012
BurundiPresentNativeGovaerts, 2012
CameroonPresentNativeGovaerts, 2012
Cape VerdePresentNativeGovaerts, 2012
EgyptPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
EritreaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2012
EthiopiaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2012
GuineaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2012
KenyaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2012
MalawiPresentNativeGovaerts, 2012
MauritiusPresentNativeGovaerts, 2012
MozambiquePresentNativeGovaerts, 2012
NamibiaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2012
NigeriaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2012
RwandaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2012
Sao Tome and PrincipePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
SeychellesPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
Sierra LeonePresentNativeGovaerts, 2012
SomaliaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2012
South AfricaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga
SudanPresentNativeGovaerts, 2012
SwazilandPresentNativeGovaerts, 2012
TanzaniaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2012
UgandaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2012
ZambiaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2012
ZimbabwePresentNativeGovaerts, 2012

North America

MexicoPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2012
USA
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Invasive Wunderlin and Hansen, 2008Invasive Category I
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive Motooka et al., 2003Weed

Central America and Caribbean

AnguillaWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Antigua and BarbudaWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
ArubaPresentIntroducedBoldingh, 1914
BahamasPresentIntroducedCorrell and Correll, 1982
BarbadosPresentIntroducedUrban, 1920
BelizePresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 2009
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Tortola
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedProctor, 1984
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 2009
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive González-Torres et al., 2012
CuraçaoPresentIntroducedBoldingh, 1914
DominicaWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Considered a weed
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 2009
GuadeloupeWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
HondurasPresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 2009
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAdams, 1972
MartiniqueWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Netherlands AntillesWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Saba, St. Eustatius, St. Martin, Bonaire
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 2009
PanamaPresentIntroducedCorrea et al., 2004
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005Considered a weed. Also on Vieques Island
Saint LuciaWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez, 2005St. Croix, St. John and St. Thomas

South America

Brazil
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroducedForzza et al., 2012

Oceania

French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedFlorence et al., 2011
GuamPresentIntroducedFosberg et al., 1979

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

J. fluminense was introduced from Africa to America by early Portuguese explorers. It was first described in 1829 from material collected in Brazil (Hammer 1996). In Florida, this species was introduced in the early 1920s as an ornamental plant and by the 1960s it had escaped from gardens and was reported as a common weed in natural areas (Langeland et al., 2008).

For the West Indies, herbarium collections suggest that J. fluminense was introduced in the 1900s or before. The species first appeared in a herbarium collection (the Smithsonian Institute Herbarium) made in 1910 in the Dominican Republic. Later, in 1914, I. Boldingh reported this species as “cultivated” in Aruba, Curaçao, and Bonaire (Boldingh, 1914). The earliest collections of J. fluminense from Cuba deposited at the Smithsonian Herbarium date from 1918, however the first published report of this species (as J. azoricum) for Cuba seems to be from León and Alain (1957) who reported it as escaped from cultivation. By 1920, this species is reported by Ignaz Urban (Symbolae Antillanae, VIII: p. 534, 1920) as commonly cultivated in gardens in the islands of Hispaniola, St. Martin, St. Eustatius, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Barbados, Aruba, Curaçao, and Bonaire (Urban, 1920). For Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands, the plant is reported as escaped from cultivation and widely distributed through the islands by Britton and Wilson (1926). In 2005, Acevedo-Rodríguez reports this species as common and naturalized in Puerto Rico, Vieques and the US Virgin Islands.

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

The risk of introduction of J. fluminense is very high. This species has been intentionally planted as an ornamental in many tropical and subtropical regions. It has escaped from gardens and spreads rapidly into natural forest, climbing into the canopy of mature trees completely engulfing native vegetation (Hammer, 2000; Motooka et al., 2003; Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011; González-Torres et al., 2012). It has a great dispersal capacity due to seeds which can be easily dispersed by birds and mammals (Langeland et al., 2008). In addition, many cultivars of the species are still sold in the nursery and landscape trade (Francis, 2004).

Habitat

Top of page

J. fluminense can be found growing along roads, in pastures, riverbanks, agricultural fields, forest gaps, and disturbed areas as well as in moist undisturbed forests in tropical and subtropical regions. It is commonly planted as an ornamental in gardens, yards, fencelines and hedges. In Florida, this species is widespread in a variety of habitats, most particularly hardwood forests, and is a pest in cultivated ground (Hammer, 2000; Langeland et al., 2008). In Hawaii, areas invaded by J. fluminense have been detected along roads, in disturbed forests, and in lowland dry forests where it covers all other vegetation almost completely over several acres (Wagner et al., 1999; Motooka et al., 2003). In Puerto Rico, it is common in pastures, disturbed areas, and along roads from sea level to more than 600 metres in elevation (Francis, 2004; Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial-managed
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
semi-natural/Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
semi-natural/Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

There is no published data on the chromosome number for J. fluminense. However, studies have suggested that the basic chromosome number for the genus Jasminum is 13, and most species are diploid (2n=26; Singh, 2006).        

Physiology and Phenology

J. fluminense can be found flowering throughout the year. However, in Florida its flowering activity is most abundant in spring and fruits can be found from early summer to early winter (Hammer 1996). In Puerto Rico, this species commonly flowers from September to December and fruiting is from January to August (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005). 

Longevity

Under favourable conditions, plants of J. fluminense can survive for several years and fruits are produced in abundance. Germination rates are high and dense plots of seedlings can be found in the field. J. fluminense also roots whenever stems come in contact with the ground. The stems of established plants may extend as much as 2 or 3 m in one year. Seedlings grow much more slowly (Francis, 2004). 

Environmental Requirements

J. fluminense prefers to grow in areas receiving about 750 to 1800 mm of annual rainfall, from near sea level to more than 600-800 metres in elevation (Francis, 2004; Langeland et al., 2008. This species is adapted to a great variety of soil types but does not tolerate poorly drained soils. It is restricted to areas with minimum temperatures above 1.7°C and is able to grow on the coast in areas that do not receive salt spray (Langeland et al., 2008). The plant tolerates partial shade, but grows rapidly climbing up areas in the canopy of the forest with better sunlight (Francis, 2004).

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 1.7
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 20 35

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall7501800mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • shallow

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

J. fluminense spreads sexually by seeds and vegetatively by cuttings and secondary stems. It produces large numbers of seeds that can be easily dispersed by birds and mammals (e.g., raccoons in Florida; Hammer, 2000). It can also be propagated by cuttings and by lateral extensions growing from stems (Francis, 2004; Langeland et al., 2008).

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Escape from confinement or garden escapeSeeds Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; Francis, 2004
Garden waste disposalSeeds and cuttings Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; Francis, 2004
Nursery tradePlants and seeds are sold online Frequently used as ornamental and hedge plant Yes Yes
Ornamental purposesCommonly planted in gardens, yards and as a hedge plant Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; Francis, 2004
Seed tradePlants and seeds are sold online Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
MailSeeds are sold online Yes Yes
Soil, sand and gravelSeeds Yes Yes Francis, 2004

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

Top of page

J. fluminense is an aggressive weed with the potential to collapse native plant communities by displacing native species, changing community structures and altering ecological functions. This species can completely out-compete all other vegetation in both disturbed and undisturbed forests. J. fluminense forms dense thickets that engulf native vegetation, climbing high into the canopies and shading-out herbs, shrubs, and trees in the understory of native forests (Hammer, 2000; Motooka et al., 2003; Francis, 2004; Langeland et al., 2008; González-Torres et al., 2012; PIER, 2012).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page

Impact mechanisms

  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Competition - strangling
  • Rapid growth

Impact outcomes

  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Host damage
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species

Invasiveness

  • Abundant in its native range
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has a broad native range
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Long lived
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Reproduces asexually
  • Tolerant of shade

Likelihood of entry/control

  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

Top of page

J. fluminense has been widely commercialized as an ornamental plant. Despite its invasive nature, many cultivars are still for sale in the nursery and landscape trade in tropical and subtropical countries (Francis, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2012). The species has also been used as a hedge-plant and to cover fences (Langeland et al., 2008).

Uses List

Top of page

Environmental

  • Boundary, barrier or support

Ornamental

  • Propagation material
  • Seed trade

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Seedlings and small plants of J. fluminense can be pulled up by hand. Large plants should be cut at the ground level using special machinery and the stumps then treated with 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl-oxy acetic-acid (triclopyr). Follow-up treatment and repeated applications of herbicide might be necessary to kill remaining plants and all re-sprouts (Motooka et al., 2003).

References

Top of page

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2005. Vines and climbing plants of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 51:483 pp.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Adams CD, 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica. Mona, Jamaica: University of the West Indies, 848 pp.

Boldingh I, 1914. The flora of the Dutch West Indian Islands: The Flora of Aruba, Curaçao and Bonaire. Leyden, Netherlands: EJ. Brill, 244 pp. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/20608

Britton NL; Wilson P, 1926. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and Virgin Islands. Volumen VI. New York, USA: Academy of Sciences, 629 pp.

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Correa A; Galdames MDC; Stapf MNS, 2004. Catalogue of vascular plants of Panama (Catalogo de Plantas Vasculares de Panama.), Panama: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 599 pp.

Correll DS; Correll HB, 1982. Flora of the Bahama Archipelago. Vaduz, Germany: J. Cramer, 1692 pp.

Davidse G; Sousa MS; Knapp S; Chiang FC, 2009. Cucurbitaceae a Polemoniaceae. Flora Mesoamericana, 4(1):1-855.

Florence J; Chevillotte H; Ollier C; Meyer JY, 2011. [English title not available]. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP).) . http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011. Florida EPPC's 2011 Invasive Plant Species List. http://www.fleppc.org/list/11list.html

Forzza RC; Leitman PM; Costa AF; Carvalho Jr AA, et al. , 2012. List of species of the Flora of Brazil (Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2012/

Fosberg FR; Sachet MH; Oliver RL, 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica, 15:222.

Francis JK, 2004. Wildland shrubs of the United States and its Territories: thamnic descriptions: volume 1. General Technical Report - International Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service, No.IITF-GTR-26: 830 pp.

González-Torres LR; Rankin R; Palmarola A (eds), 2012. Invasive plants in Cuba. (Plantas Invasoras en Cuba.) Bissea: Boletin sobre Conservacion de Plantad del Jardin Botanico Nacional, 6:1-140.

Govaerts R, 2012. World Checklist of Oleaceae. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Hammer RL, 1996. Jasminum dichotomum, Jasminum fluminense. In: Invasive plants, weeds of the global garden [ed. by Randall, J. M. \Marinelli, J.]. New York, USA: Brooklyn Botanic Garden Press, 94-95. [Brooklyn Botanic Garden Handbook #149.]

Hammer RL, 2000. The genus Jasminum in Florida. Wildland Weeds, 4(1):13-15.

Langeland KA; Cherry HM; McCormick CM; Craddock Burks KA, 2008. Identification and Biology of Non-native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas. Gainesville, Florida, USA: University of Florida IFAS Extension.

León F; Alain H, 1957. Flora de Cuba. Volumen 4 (Flora of Cuba. Volume 4). Havana, Cuba.

Motooka P; Castro L; Nelson D; Nagai G; Ching L, 2003. Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas; an identification and management guide. Manoa, Hawaii, USA: College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii.

PIER, 2012. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Proctor GR, 1984. Flora of the Cayman Islands. London, UK: Royal Botanical Gardens, 834 pp.

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Singh K, 2006. Flower Crops: Cultivation and Management. Delhi, India: New India Publishing.

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Urban I, 1920. Symbolae Antillanae,seu, Fundamenta florae Indiae Occidentalis, Volume 8.

USDA-ARS, 2012. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press/Bishop Museum Press, 1919 pp.

Wunderlin RP; Hansen BF, 2008. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. Tampa, Florida, USA: University of South Florida. http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/

Contributors

Top of page

15/03/13 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map