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Datasheet

Anredera cordifolia

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 April 2014
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Anredera cordifolia
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Madeira vine
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. cordifolia is a succulent climbing plant native to South America that has proved to be very invasive in several countries where introduced, notably in Australia and on Pacific islands but also elsewhere. It smothers ground vegetation and, with ...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Anredera cordifolia (Madeira vine, mignonette vine, uala hupe); typical habit, climbing and smothering native vegetation. Ulupalakua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2001.
TitleHabit
CaptionAnredera cordifolia (Madeira vine, mignonette vine, uala hupe); typical habit, climbing and smothering native vegetation. Ulupalakua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2001.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2001 - CC BY 3.0
Anredera cordifolia (Madeira vine, mignonette vine, uala hupe); typical habit, climbing and smothering native vegetation. Ulupalakua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2001.
HabitAnredera cordifolia (Madeira vine, mignonette vine, uala hupe); typical habit, climbing and smothering native vegetation. Ulupalakua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2001.©Forest & Kim Starr-2001 - CC BY 3.0
Anredera cordifolia (Madeira vine, mignonette vine, uala hupe); leaves. Lanai City, Lanai, Hawaii, USA. April, 2007.
TitleLeaves
CaptionAnredera cordifolia (Madeira vine, mignonette vine, uala hupe); leaves. Lanai City, Lanai, Hawaii, USA. April, 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 3.0
Anredera cordifolia (Madeira vine, mignonette vine, uala hupe); leaves. Lanai City, Lanai, Hawaii, USA. April, 2007.
LeavesAnredera cordifolia (Madeira vine, mignonette vine, uala hupe); leaves. Lanai City, Lanai, Hawaii, USA. April, 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 3.0
Anredera cordifolia (Madeira vine, mignonette vine, uala hupe); close-up of leaves. Lanai City, Lanai, Hawaii, USA. April, 2007.
TitleLeaves
CaptionAnredera cordifolia (Madeira vine, mignonette vine, uala hupe); close-up of leaves. Lanai City, Lanai, Hawaii, USA. April, 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 3.0
Anredera cordifolia (Madeira vine, mignonette vine, uala hupe); close-up of leaves. Lanai City, Lanai, Hawaii, USA. April, 2007.
LeavesAnredera cordifolia (Madeira vine, mignonette vine, uala hupe); close-up of leaves. Lanai City, Lanai, Hawaii, USA. April, 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 3.0
Anredera cordifolia (Madeira vine, mignonette vine, uala hupe); flowers. Poko, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2001.
TitleFlowers
CaptionAnredera cordifolia (Madeira vine, mignonette vine, uala hupe); flowers. Poko, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2001.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 3.0
Anredera cordifolia (Madeira vine, mignonette vine, uala hupe); flowers. Poko, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2001.
FlowersAnredera cordifolia (Madeira vine, mignonette vine, uala hupe); flowers. Poko, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2001.©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 3.0
Anredera cordifolia (Madeira vine, mignonette vine, uala hupe); close-up of flowers. Poko, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2001.
TitleFlowers
CaptionAnredera cordifolia (Madeira vine, mignonette vine, uala hupe); close-up of flowers. Poko, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2001.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 3.0
Anredera cordifolia (Madeira vine, mignonette vine, uala hupe); close-up of flowers. Poko, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2001.
FlowersAnredera cordifolia (Madeira vine, mignonette vine, uala hupe); close-up of flowers. Poko, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2001.©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis

Preferred Common Name

  • Madeira vine

Other Scientific Names

  • Boussingaultia cordifolia Ten.
  • Boussingaultia gracilis Miers
  • Boussingaultia cordasta Spreng.

International Common Names

  • English: basell-potatoes; bridal wreath; lamb's tails; mignonette vine; potato vine
  • Spanish: anredera; enredadera del mosquito; parra de madeira

Local Common Names

  • China: luo kui shu
  • Cook Islands: pia; tapau
  • Easter Island: luna luna
  • Hawaii: 'uala hupe
  • Indonesia: binahong
  • Niue: filikafa
  • South Africa: Madeiraranker
  • Sweden: madeiraranka
  • USA: heartleaf madeiravine

Summary of Invasiveness

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A. cordifolia is a succulent climbing plant native to South America that has proved to be very invasive in several countries where introduced, notably in Australia and on Pacific islands but also elsewhere. It smothers ground vegetation and, with its fleshy leaves and production of thick aerial tubers, it is so heavy that it easily breaks branches and can even bring down whole trees. It has shown itself to be a very damaging weed in moist forests, blanketing the ground and enveloping the canopy, restricting light and preventing the germination of native plants. A. cordifolia has been variously described as a ‘devastating weed’ that can ‘destroy a rainforest’. It has proved very difficult to control, but recent advances with biological control have shown potential following the release of the first agent in Australia in 2011.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Caryophyllales
  •                         Family: Basellaceae
  •                             Genus: Anredera
  •                                 Species: Anredera cordifolia

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The genus Anredera Juss. is in the small family Basellaceae, which contains only three other genera, all monospecific: Basella L., Tournonia Moq. and Ullucus Caldas. The Plant list (2013) includes 12 species of Anredera, though only four are noted in USDA-ARS (2013), all native to the Americas.

A. cordifolia has two recognized subspecies, A. cordifolia subsp. cordifolia and A. cordifolia subsp. gracilis, differentiated by vegetative morphology, occurrence of fruit with seed production, pollen grain size and exine sculpture, and ploidy level (Xifreda et al., 1999).

The common name of madeira vine is also sometimes used with other species of the genus, though none are native to the island of Madeira. The name is also occasionally used with a specific epithet to differentiate between them; for example, A. cordifolia is called heartleaf madeiravine in parts of the USA where Texas madeiravine is used for A. vesicaria (Lam.) C.F. Gaertn. (USDA-NRCS, 2013).

Description

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Adapted from Starr et al. (2003) and PIER (2013):

A. cordifolia is a perennial evergreen climbing vine or liana that grows from fleshy rhizomes. Stems are slender, climbing to 3-6 m in height in a single growing season, often reddish in colour. Oval or heart-shaped leaves are bright green and shiny, 2-13 cm long and 1-11 cm wide, broadly ovate, often involute, sometimes lanceolate, scarcely succulent to succulent according to degree of exposure, margins often turned inwards, base subcordate or cordate; apex obtuse, subsessile or with a petiole 1-(2) cm long, commonly with small irregular tubers in their axils. The potato-like tubers, produced on aerial stems covered in warts, are specific and typical in identifying the plant, but can grow to 25 cm in diameter. Masses of fragrant, cream flowers occur on simple or 2-4-branched racemes, pendent to 18cm cm long excluding the common peduncle, up to 30 cm including it, with numerous small, white, fragrant flowers. Pedicels are 2-3 mm long, bracts 1.5-1.8 mm long and lanceolate-subulate. Lower bracteoles are 0.5-1 mm long and cupulate, with upper bracteoles 2-2.5 mm long and suborbicular. The five tepals are 2-3 mm long and elliptic-oblong to broadly elliptic. Filaments are narrow-triangular, widely divergent, bending outwards near base, with a single style shorter than the stamens and clavate.

Plant Type

Top of pageBroadleaved
Herbaceous
Perennial
Succulent
Vegetatively propagated
Vine / climber
Woody

Distribution

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A. cordifolia is native to a relatively small area of central and eastern South America, including Bolivia, southern Brazil (Parana, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina), Paraguay, Uruguay and northern Argentina (Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Federal District, Formosa, Jujuy, Misiones, Salta, San Luis, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, and Tucuman) (USDA-ARS, 2013).

It has been introduced globally, including to China, Japan, India, Israel, parts of Africa, USA, Mexico, the Caribbean, Australia and New Zealand and surrounding islands. It has shown itself to be adaptable to Mediterranean, sub-tropical and tropical climates, and has become invasive especially in Oceania and Africa (Cagnotti et al., 2007).

Distribution Table

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CountryDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferencesNotes

ASIA

ChinaPresentIntroducedNot invasivePIER, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013
-BeijingPresentIntroducedFlora of China, 2013
-FujianPresentIntroducedFlora of China, 2013
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedFlora of China, 2013
-HainanPresentIntroducedFlora of China, 2013
-Hong KongPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2013
-JiangsuPresentIntroducedFlora of China, 2013
-SichuanPresentIntroducedFlora of China, 2013
-YunnanPresentIntroducedFlora of China, 2013
-ZhejiangPresentIntroducedFlora of China, 2013
IndiaPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2013
IsraelPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
JapanPresentIntroducedNot invasivePIER, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013
LebanonPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
TaiwanPresentGBIF, 2013; Datamining 2011 - Invasive Species Databases
TurkeyPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2013

AFRICA

Cape VerdePresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
EritreaPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2013
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2013
MadagascarPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2013
MalawiPresentGBIF, 2013; Datamining 2011 - Invasive Species Databases
SenegalPresentEPPO, 2013; Lebrun et al., 1993; Datamining 2011 - Invasive Species Databases
South AfricaPresentUSDA-ARS, 2013; Datamining 2011 - Invasive Species Databases
SpainEPPO, 2013
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
SwazilandPresentEPPO, 2013; Datamining 2011 - Invasive Species Databases
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedGBIF, 2013

NORTH AMERICA

BermudaPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2013
MexicoPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013; EPPO, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013; Datamining 2011 - Invasive Species Databases
USAPresentEPPO, 2013; Datamining 2011 - Invasive Species Databases
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-District of ColumbiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-HawaiiPresentEPPO, 2013; USDA-NRCS, 2013; PIER, 2013
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-TexasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013

CENTRAL AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

Costa RicaPresentGBIF, 2013; EPPO, 2013; Datamining 2011 - Invasive Species Databases
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2013
GuatemalaPresentGBIF, 2013; EPPO, 2013; Datamining 2011 - Invasive Species Databases
HondurasPresentGBIF, 2013; EPPO, 2013; Datamining 2011 - Invasive Species Databases
Puerto RicoPresentEPPO, 2013; Datamining 2011 - Invasive Species Databases

SOUTH AMERICA

ArgentinaPresentGBIF, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013
BoliviaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013
BrazilPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
-ParanaPresentGBIF, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013
-Rio Grande do SulPresentGBIF, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013
-Santa CatarinaPresentGBIF, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013
ChilePresentIntroducedInvasivePIER, 2013Juan Fernando Islands
-Easter IslandPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER, 2013
ColombiaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
EcuadorPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
ParaguayPresentGBIF, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013
PeruPresentNativePIER, 2013
UruguayPresentGBIF, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013

EUROPE

CroatiaPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2013; Stancic & Mihelj, 2010
CyprusPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
FrancePresentEPPO, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013; Datamining 2011 - Invasive Species Databases
-CorsicaPresentEPPO, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013
GreecePresentEPPO, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013; Datamining 2011 - Invasive Species Databases
ItalyPresentEPPO, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013; Datamining 2011 - Invasive Species Databases
-SicilyPresentEPPO, 2013
NetherlandsPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2013
PortugalPresentEPPO, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013; Datamining 2011 - Invasive Species Databases
-AzoresPresentEPPO, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013
-MadeiraPresentEPPO, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013
SpainPresentEPPO, 2013; Datamining 2011 - Invasive Species Databases
-Balearic IslandsPresentEPPO, 2013

OCEANIA

AustraliaPresentEPPO, 2013; Datamining 2011 - Invasive Species Databases
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER, 2013; Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2013
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER, 2013; Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2013
-South AustraliaLocalisedIntroducedInvasiveCouncil of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2013
-TasmaniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCouncil of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2013
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCouncil of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2013
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCouncil of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2013
Cook IslandsPresentPIER, 2013; Datamining 2011 - Invasive Species Databases
FijiPresentPIER, 2013; EPPO, 2013; Datamining 2011 - Invasive Species Databases
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedNot invasivePIER, 2013
New ZealandPresentPIER, 2013; EPPO, 2013; Datamining 2011 - Invasive Species Databases
NiuePresentIntroducedInvasivePIER, 2013
Norfolk IslandPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER, 2013Also Lord Howe Island
Pitcairn IslandPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER, 2013

History of Introduction and Spread

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A. cordifolia was first collected in Hawaii in 1940 but is believed to have been introduced during the early 1900s (Wagner et al. 1999). A. cordifolia was recorded in the early 1900s as an ornamental plant in gardens and parks in south Croatia, where it is reported to have escaped from cultivation and become naturalized along roadsides and in ruderal vegetation, but is not invasive (Stancic and Mihelj, 2010).

Risk of Introduction

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A risk assessment of A. cordifolia in the Pacific region resulted in a very high risk score of 20. It is a declared noxious weed in Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Hawaii.

Gallagher et al. (2010) described littoral rainforest reserves in eastern Australia as a bioclimatically suitable habitat for A. cordifolia under both current and future climate scenarios.

Habitat

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Anredera species are typically found in dry scrub and thickets in its native South America (Starr et al., 2003). Where it is an exotic invasive species, A. cordifolia is found in natural forests, planted forests, riparian zones, waste land, scrub areas and coastland. In Australia it is found invading the edges of rainforest, tall open forests, damp sclerophyll forests and riparian vegetation, whereas in New Zealand it is common in waste land, coastal gulleys and scrubland (PEIR, 2013). It is found invading habitats similar to the above in some Pacific islands, but in other islands it remains commonly cultivated and, although noted to escape often, only rarely becomes naturalized. In South Africa, A. cordifolia has also escaped from gardens and is invasive in coastal areas, woodland and open spaces inland (Starr et al., 2003).

Gallagher et al. (2010) investigated the potential interactions between climate change and exotic plant invasions and their effects on areas of high conservation value in eastern Australia, with A. cordifolia one of five vines studied. Littoral rainforest reserves were consistently predicted to provide bioclimatically suitable habitat for the five vines examined under both current and future climate scenarios, and the consequences and potential strategies for managing exotic plant invasions in these protected areas in the coming decades was assessed.

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areasPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-managed
Disturbed areasPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchardsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areasPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forestsPrincipal habitatHarmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forestsPrincipal habitatNatural
RiverbanksPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
RiverbanksPresent, no further detailsNatural
Scrub / shrublandsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublandsPresent, no further detailsNatural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The two infraspecific taxa in A. cordifolia are reported to be cytotaxonomically distinct (Xifreda et al., 1999), with A. cordifolia subsp. gracilis having 2n = 24 and A. cordifolia subsp. cordifolia having a higher ploidy level of 2n = 36.

Reproductive Biology

A. cordifolia reproduces mainly through the proliferation of aerial and underground tubers and stem and rhizome fragments. Stems bear thousands of aerial tubers which form clusters high in the vine, and underground tubers, which may be football-sized, grow on rhizomes up to a metre deep. Aerial tubers can survive and resprout for more than five years in the canopy after the stems have been cut, and high densities of more than 1500 tubers per square metre have been reported in the soil (Starr et al., 2003). However, A. cordifolia is only rarely reported to produce seed (PIER, 2013).

The chromosome numbers of the two subspecies reported by Xifreda et al. (1999) indicated that either they have separate base chromosome numbers – unlikely in subspecies of a single species – or that A. cordifolia subsp. cordifolia is in fact a sterile triploid that cannot produce fertile seeds and can only propagate vegetatively.

Starr et al. (2003) reported that A. cordifolia has both male and female flowers but that they rarely reproduce sexually and produce seed, and not at all in Hawaii (Wagner et al., 1999), suggesting that it is A. cordifolia subsp. cordifolia present there.

Seedling production was observed in Australia for the first time in south-eastern Queensland by Swarbrick (1999), suggesting that this would be the fertile diploid A. cordifolia subsp. gracilis. Seedlings were found both below and away from existing clumps on several occasions and it was concluded that the possibility of seed production, seed dispersal and the building up of seed banks in the soil should be taken into account during management of A. cordifolia in this location. In New Zealand, flowering occurs from January to April but no fruiting was observed.

Physiology and Phenology

Starr et al. (2003) described the characteristics of A. cordifolia that contribute to its invasiveness, including a history of weediness in warm, moist climates, aggressive vegetative growth and climbing nature which competes with and replaces or smothers other vegetation, and difficulty of control once established. In warm climates, very rapid growth rates have been observed, up to 1 m extensions in shoot length per week and 3-6 m in a growing season (Starr et al., 2003).

Boyne et al. (2013) studied the anatomy and morphology traits of A. cordifolia leaves and considered their implications for the plant’s ecology and physiology. Significantly more stomata were observed on the abaxial sides of leaves under high light levels, which may account for its ability to fix large amounts of carbon and rapidly respond to light gaps. The leaves had very narrow veins and no sclerenchyma, suggesting a low construction cost that is associated with invasive plants. There was no significant difference in any traits among different cohorts, supporting the fact that A. cordifolia propagates almost entirely vegetatively (Boyne et al., 2013).

Environmental Requirements

A. cordifolia is native to warm temperate climates in South America with both wet and dry summers and areas with no dry season, but it has proved itself to be adaptable to other climates, and has become naturalized in Mediterranean, sub-tropical and tropical climates. Average annual rainfall in its native distribution is 500-2000 mm, and average temperatures are 20-35ºC in the southern summer in January and 10-30ºC in July.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
As - Tropical savannah climate with dry summerPreferred< 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climatePreferred< 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
B - Dry (arid and semi-arid)Tolerated< 860mm precipitation annually
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all yearPreferredWarm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summerPreferredWarm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winterPreferredWarm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Several reports have identified natural enemies of A. cordifolia, specific and generalist, such as a new virus in Hungary (and subsequently found in Argentina) identified as a member of the potex virus group and tentatively named Boussingaultia mosaic virus (Beczner and Vassanyi, 1980). There is also a leaf spot disease of A. cordifolia caused by A. alternata reported from Taiwan (Lai et al., 1996). For more information see Biological Control.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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A. cordifolia spreads by vegetative growth. It is dispersed by the movement of both tubers and rhizomes, which spread longer distances by being washed down waterways and, being tolerant to saltwater, also along shorelines in coastal areas (Starr et al., 2003; PIER, 2013).

It is also spread by people by being intentionally introduced to new areas as an ornamental and landscape plant. It can readily escape from cultivation as a vine, spreading vegetatively via pieces of rhizome and stem tubers. Plants can also spread in green waste, especially when dumped on bushland edges (Starr et al. 2003; PIER, 2013).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Erosion control/ dune stabilizationYesYes
Escape from confinement/ garden escapeYes
Flooding/ other natural disasterYes
Garden waste disposalYes
Landscape improvement/ landscaping industryYesYes
Ornamental purposesYesYes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesYes
Floating vegetation/debrisYes
WaterYes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Environment (generally)Negative

Environmental Impact

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A. cordifolia has been variously described as a ‘devastating weed’ that can ‘destroy a rainforest’. It smothers ground vegetation and, with its fleshy leaves and production of thick aerial tubers, restricts light and prevents the germination of native plants. It is so heavy that it easily breaks branches, reducing trees to poles, and can even bring down whole trees and destroy whole forest canopies.

Of the 1,665 naturalized plant species assessed by Downey et al. (2010) for their threat and impact as environmental weeds in Australia, 340 species were modelled to establish a prioritized list. This process identified three extreme and 19 very high priority species with respect to their ability to have negative impacts on biodiversity. A. cordifolia was one of the three ‘extreme’ species (along with Lantana camara and Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata), although it was only ranked 41st in the determination of the Weeds of National Significance (Downey et al., 2010). Several years earlier, Batianoff et al. (2002; 2003) reported that A. cordifolia ranked fourth out of 66 priority environmental weeds in southeast Queensland in terms of the current level of impact and predicted future impact, with future impact data indicating that most species will be more problematic in the future than they are at present.

A. cordifolia was one of seven species that presented the greatest threat and also proved the most difficult to control on Raoul Island, New Zealand (along with Senna septemtrionalis, Caesalpinia decapetala, Psidium cattleianum, Psidium guajava, Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata and Passiflora edulis) (West et al., 2003).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Impact mechanisms

  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - other
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Rapid growth

Impact outcomes

  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts forestry
  • Negatively impacts tourism
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species

Invasiveness

  • Fast growing
  • Has a broad native range
  • Has high genetic variability
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Reproduces asexually
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc

Likelihood of entry/control

  • Difficult/costly to control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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The main use of A. cordifolia is as an ornamental plant and for landscaping purposes, being fast growing, with an interesting and aesthetic form, possessing fragrant white flowers, and being easily trained to twine up trellises, fences, or rock walls for decoration or for screening (Starr et al., 2003).

Extracts of plant parts are also widely used for traditional medicines in Indonesia and Thailand and possibly also in its native range.

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Landscape improvement

General

  • Ornamental

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Prevention and Control

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Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

Starr et al. (2003) suggested that the public could be advised not to plant or spread plants to new areas, and that tubers and parts of the plant should be double bagged and thrown away in the refuse or piled in one location on site, but not disposed of in uninfected areas.

The primary aim of rainforest regeneration and measures that can be taken to replace weeds with native species were discussed by Joseph and Blackmore (1999), and the roles of manipulating the use of natural resources by the plants and of exploiting the natural regenerative capacity of native vegetation are highlighted. The goals of weed eradication and weed control including A. cordifolia are discussed, and the importance of using a management approach is emphasized (Joseph and Blackmore, 1999).

 Physical/Mechanical Control

Physical control of A. cordifolia is very difficult. All parts of the vine must be removed, including underground tubers and vines climbing up trees to prevent them from resprouting. Placing a plastic sheet below the plant is recommended before any manual control begins to ensure that all falling parts of the plant, especially aerial tubers, can be gathered and safely removed (Starr et al., 2003).

Plants can be pulled up all year round, and then all parts of the plant should be burnt or put in black plastic bags and left to ‘cook’ in the sun. Plants parts should not be disposed of in the sea as they may sprout wherever they come ashore. Putting black sheeting as a mulch over cut areas has also been suggested to prevent regrowth (PIER, 2013). Follow-up herbicide treatments are more effective on young resprouts growing from fragments left in the ground following physical clearance, and before tubers have had the time to redevelop (see Chemical control).

However, long-term treatment is required in any case. Harden et al. (2004) noted that even after 15 years of treatments, aerial tubers of A. cordifolia were still held high on dead stems caught in the restored forest canopy in a few isolated areas, and some of these may have still retained the potential to resprout.

 Chemical Control

A. cordifolia is hard to kill with chemicals due to its numerous tubers, succulent waxy leaves that limit herbicide uptake, and numerous roots (Starr et al., 2003). Repeat applications are always required, although they are especially effective on new resprouts following manual clearance. Timing of follow-up spraying is important because if left too long new underground tubers will form, thereby prolonging successful control. Pallin (2000) reported that that efforts have been made to annually apply herbicides using the ‘stem-scrape method’ in one site, killing vines and aerial tubers in situ and preventing the development of more tubers. A. cordifolia regrowth can be spot sprayed with herbicides where there are no native seedlings present, and although flooding brings in more tubers from upstream sources, this strategy almost eliminated the production of tubers and thus protected regenerating areas (Pallin, 2000).

Prior et al. (2001) found that repeat applications of fluroxypyr and glyphosate at 3-monthly intervals were equally effective in controlling all vine stems present at application, though fluroxypyr also significantly reduced the number of new stems in the months between applications. Prior and Armstrong (2001) favoured fluroxypyr treatments because at lower concentrations competitive grass species can also establish and then compete with A. cordifolia. Removal of competition through the use of the non-selective herbicide glyphosate may favour re-invasion from subterranean tubers, especially if applied at a time of year when translocation activity is not high. There appeared to be no preferential time for spraying. Model predictions indicated that monthly applications of fluroxypyr would be required to stabilize the population in the absence of recruitment of new individuals and subsequently reduce it at a rate dependent upon the mortality of the subterranean tuber bank (Prior et al., 2001).

Field trials in New Zealand showed mature vines and their attached tubers were best controlled using metsulfuron-methyl, with reasonable control provided by a triclopyr/picloram mixture and by glyphosate (Webb and Harrington, 2005). These also gave good control of 3-month-old plants, as did tribenuron-methyl, fluroxypyr and amitrole. Tubers were killed by immersing momentarily in high concentrations of picloram, triclopyr or fluroxypyr, but were also killed by freezing, by heating to 80°C or higher for 24 hours, or by boiling for a few minutes, but any pulverization techniques needed to be thorough (Webb and Harrington, 2005).

 Biological Control

Research into biological control of A. cordifolia in South Africa was initiated in 2003 with exploratory observations on the life-history and host-specificity of two leaf-feeding beetles, Phenrica sp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Brazil and Plectonycha correntina Lacordaire (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Chrysomelinae) from Argentina and Brazil (Westhuizen et al., 2011), though no agents had been released by that time. Adults and larvae of both chrysomelids fed extensively on leaves and new growth resulting in reductions in leaf and above-ground biomass. The laboratory host-ranges of these potential agents seem acceptably narrow, with normal development restricted to the host plant. The Phenrica sp. colony, however, died out during quarantine and re-collecting has not been possible, but host-specificity studies continue with P. correntina (Westhuizen et al., 2011).

Field surveys conducted in Argentina also showed that Plectonycha correntina was a promising biocontrol agent against A. cordifolia in Australia (Cagnotti et al., 2007). The host range was evaluated by no-choice larval survival tests and adult feeding and oviposition choice tests, with results indicating that the host range of P. correntina is restricted to the Basellaceae, with A. cordifolia as its primary host. Consequently, P. correntina was considered a safe and promising biocontrol agent for A. cordifolia in countries such as Australia and New Zealand where no other Basellaceae occur (Cagnotti et al., 2007). It was approved for release as a biological control agent in February 2011 (Snow et al., 2012), and subsequently mass reared and introduced into infestations in south-eastern Queensland from May 2011 onward. The insect successfully overwintered at 15 of the initial 29 sites, with adults, larvae and eggs being recorded. Post-winter releases over a further 79 sites in Queensland and New South Wales are indicating promising results, with insects being present and reproducing at 42% of sites in the following autumn. Damage levels at all sites were generally low, reflecting that this was the first year of releases. 20% loss of leaf area was estimated at two sites. Preliminary analysis of data indicated that establishment did not appear to be closely related to the number of insects released, so other factors such as season of release, light levels or density of predators may be important (Snow et al., 2012).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Further research on genetic variation is needed, especially to confirm the ploidy levels of the two subspecies and their ability to reproduce by seed, as well as identifying the distribution of the subspecies, both in their native range and where they are introduced.

References

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Batianoff GN, Butler DW, 2002. Assessment of invasive naturalized plants in south-east Queensland. Plant Protection Quarterly, 17(1):27-34.

Batianoff GN, Butler DW, 2003. Impact assessment and analysis of sixty-six priority invasive weeds in south-east Queensland. Plant Protection Quarterly, 18(1):11-15.

Beczner L, Vassanyi R, 1980. Identification of a new potexvirus isolated from Boussingaultia cordifolia and B. gracilis f. pseudo-baselloides. Tagungsbericht der Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik, 65-75

Boyne RL, Osunkoya OO, Scharaschkin T, 2013. Variation in leaf structure of the invasive Madeira vine (Anredera cordifolia, Basellaceae) at different light levels. Australian Journal of Botany, 61(5):412-417. http://www.publish.csiro.au/?nid/66

Cagnotti C, McKay F, Gandolfo D, 2007. Biology and host specificity of Plectonycha correntina Lacordaire (Chrysomelidae), a candidate for the biological control of Anredera cordifolia (Tenore) Steenis (Basellaceae). African Entomology, 15(2):300-309. http://journals.sabinet.co.za/essa

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2013. Australia's virtual herbarium. Australia: Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria. http://avh.ala.org.au

Downey PO, Scanlon TJ, Hosking JR, 2010. Prioritizing weed species based on their threat and ability to impact on biodiversity: a case study from New South Wales. Plant Protection Quarterly, 25(3):111-126.

EPPO, 2013. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Flora of China, 2013. Flora of China. http://www.efloras.org/

Gallagher RV, Hughes L, Leishman MR, Wilson PD, 2010. Predicted impact of exotic vines on an endangered ecological community under future climate change. Biological Invasions [Plant Invasions: Theoretical and Practical Challenges. 10th Conference on Ecology and Management of Alien Plant Invasions, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 23-27 August 2009.], 12(12):4049-4063. http://www.springerlink.com/content/n773j81151663318/fulltext.html

GBIF, 2013. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). http://data.gbif.org/species/

Harden GJ, Fox MD, Fox BJ, 2004. Monitoring and assessment of restoration of a rainforest remnant at Wingham Brush, NSW. Austral Ecology, 29(5):489-507.

Joseph R, 1999. Environmental weeds and their control with particular reference to rainforest remnant restoration. In: Practical weed management: protecting agriculture and the environment. 10th Biennial Noxious Weeds Conference, Ballina, Australia, 20th-22nd July 1999 [ed. by Blackmore, P.]. Armidale, Australia: NSW Agriculture, 136-145.

Lai YL, Hsieh WH, Huang HC, Wang SS, 1996. Leaf spots of madeira vine caused by Alternaria alternata in Taiwan. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 5(4):193-195.

Lebrun JP, Doltre M, Hebrard L, 1993. Three adventive phanerogams new to Senegal. Candollea, 48(2):339-342.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013. VAScular Tropicos database. Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html

Pallin N, 2000. Ku-ring-gai flying-fox reserve, habitat restoration project, 15 years on. Ecological Management and Restoration, 1(1):10-20.

PIER, 2013. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Prior SL, Armstrong TR, 2001. A comparison of the effects of foliar applications of glyphosate and fluroxypyr on Madeira vine, Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) van Steenis. Plant Protection Quarterly, 16(1):33-36.

Snow EL, Palmer WA, Senaratne KADW, 2012. The release of Plectonycha correntina, a leaf feeding beetle for the biological control of Madeira vine. In: Developing solutions to evolving weed problems. 18th Australasian Weeds Conference, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 8-11 October 2012 [ed. by Eldershaw, V.]. Frankston, Australia: Weed Science Society of Victoria Inc., 339-342.

Stancic Z, Mihelj D, 2010. Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis (Basellaceae), naturalised in south Croatia. Natura Croatica, 19(1):273-279. http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=casopis&id_casopis=51

Starr F, Starr K, Loope L, 2003. Anredera cordifolia. Maui, Hawaii, USA: United States Geological Survey Biological Resources Division, Haleakala Field Station.

Swarbrick JT, 1999. Seedling production by Madeira vine (Anredera cordifolia). Plant Protection Quarterly, 14(1):38-39.

The Plant List, 2010. The Plant List Version 1. UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Missouri Botanical Gardens. http://www.theplantlist.org/

USDA-ARS, 2013. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov

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Webb HJ, Harrington KC, 2005. Control strategies for Madeira vine (Anredera cordifolia). New Zealand Plant Protection [Proceedings of a conference organized by the New Zealand Plant Protection Society, Wellington, 9-11 August 2005.], 58:169-173. http://www.hortnet.co.nz/publications/nzpps/

West CJ, 2003. Eradication of alien plants on Raoul Island, Kermadec Islands, New Zealand. In: Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: Proceedings of the International Conference on eradication of island invasives [ed. by Veitch, C. R.\Clout, M. N.]. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN-The World Conservation Union, 365-373.

Westhuizen Lvan der, 2011. Initiation of a biological control programme against Madeira vine, Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis (Basellaceae), in South Africa. African Entomology, 19(2):217-222. http://journals.sabinet.co.za/essa

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe (DAISIE)http://www.europe-aliens.org/

Contributors

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13/12/13 Original text by:

Nick Pasiecznik, consultant, France

Distribution Maps

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Distribution map Argentina: Present
GBIF, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Australia: Present
EPPO, 2013Australia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryAustralia
See regional map for distribution within the countryBermuda: Present, introduced
GBIF, 2013Bolivia: Present, introduced
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Brazil: Present, introduced
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013Brazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryBrazil
See regional map for distribution within the countryCook Islands: Present
PIER, 2013Chile: Present, introduced, invasive
PIER, 2013Chile
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina: Present, introduced, not invasive
PIER, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013China: Present, introduced, not invasive
PIER, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013China
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryChina
See regional map for distribution within the countryColombia: Present, introduced
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013Colombia: Present, introduced
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013Costa Rica: Present
GBIF, 2013; EPPO, 2013Costa Rica: Present
GBIF, 2013; EPPO, 2013Cape Verde: Present, introduced
USDA-ARS, 2013Cyprus: Present, introduced
USDA-ARS, 2013Cyprus: Present, introduced
USDA-ARS, 2013Ecuador: Present, introduced
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013Eritrea: Present, introduced
GBIF, 2013Spain: Present
EPPO, 2013Spain: Present
EPPO, 2013Spain
See regional map for distribution within the countrySpain
See regional map for distribution within the countryEthiopia: Present, introduced
GBIF, 2013Fiji: Present
PIER, 2013; EPPO, 2013France: Present
EPPO, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013France
See regional map for distribution within the countryGreece: Present
EPPO, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Greece: Present
EPPO, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Guatemala: Present
GBIF, 2013; EPPO, 2013Guatemala: Present
GBIF, 2013; EPPO, 2013Honduras: Present
GBIF, 2013; EPPO, 2013Honduras: Present
GBIF, 2013; EPPO, 2013Croatia: Present, few occurrences
EPPO, 2013; Stancic & Mihelj, 2010Israel: Present, introduced
USDA-ARS, 2013Israel: Present, introduced
USDA-ARS, 2013India: Present, introduced
GBIF, 2013Italy: Present
EPPO, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Italy
See regional map for distribution within the countryItaly
See regional map for distribution within the countryJapan: Present, introduced, not invasive
PIER, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Lebanon: Present, introduced
USDA-ARS, 2013Lebanon: Present, introduced
USDA-ARS, 2013Lebanon: Present, introduced
USDA-ARS, 2013Madagascar: Present, introduced
GBIF, 2013Malawi: Present
GBIF, 2013Mexico: Present
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013; EPPO, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Mexico: Present
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013; EPPO, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013New Caledonia: Present, introduced, not invasive
PIER, 2013Norfolk Island: Present, introduced, invasive
PIER, 2013Netherlands: Present, introduced
GBIF, 2013Niue: Present, introduced, invasive
PIER, 2013New Zealand: Present
PIER, 2013; EPPO, 2013Peru: Present, native
PIER, 2013Pitcairn Island: Present, introduced, invasive
PIER, 2013Puerto Rico: Present
EPPO, 2013Puerto Rico: Present
EPPO, 2013Portugal: Present
EPPO, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Portugal
See regional map for distribution within the countryPortugal
See regional map for distribution within the countryPortugal
See regional map for distribution within the countryParaguay: Present
GBIF, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Senegal: Present
EPPO, 2013; Lebrun et al., 1993El Salvador: Present, introduced
GBIF, 2013El Salvador: Present, introduced
GBIF, 2013Swaziland: Present
EPPO, 2013Turkey: Present, introduced
GBIF, 2013Turkey: Present, introduced
GBIF, 2013Turkey: Present, introduced
GBIF, 2013Taiwan: Present
GBIF, 2013Taiwan: Present
GBIF, 2013USA: Present
EPPO, 2013USA: Present
EPPO, 2013USA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUruguay: Present
GBIF, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Venezuela: Present, introduced
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013Venezuela: Present, introduced
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013South Africa: Present
USDA-ARS, 2013Zimbabwe: Present, introduced
GBIF, 2013
  • = Present, no further details
  • = Evidence of pathogen
  • = Widespread
  • = Last reported
  • = Localised
  • = Presence unconfirmed
  • = Confined and subject to quarantine
  • = See regional map for distribution within the country
  • = Occasional or few reports
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Distribution map (asia) China: Present, introduced, not invasive
PIER, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Beijing: Present, introduced
Flora of China, 2013Fujian: Present, introduced
Flora of China, 2013Guangdong: Present, introduced
Flora of China, 2013Hainan: Present, introduced
Flora of China, 2013Hong Kong: Present, introduced
GBIF, 2013Jiangsu: Present, introduced
Flora of China, 2013Sichuan: Present, introduced
Flora of China, 2013Yunnan: Present, introduced
Flora of China, 2013Zhejiang: Present, introduced
Flora of China, 2013Israel: Present, introduced
USDA-ARS, 2013India: Present, introduced
GBIF, 2013Japan: Present, introduced, not invasive
PIER, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Lebanon: Present, introduced
USDA-ARS, 2013Turkey: Present, introduced
GBIF, 2013Taiwan: Present
GBIF, 2013
Distribution map (europe) Cyprus: Present, introduced
USDA-ARS, 2013Spain: Present
EPPO, 2013Balearic Islands: Present
EPPO, 2013France: Present
EPPO, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Corsica: Present
EPPO, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Greece: Present
EPPO, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Croatia: Present, few occurrences
EPPO, 2013; Stancic & Mihelj, 2010Italy: Present
EPPO, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Sicily: Present
EPPO, 2013Lebanon: Present, introduced
USDA-ARS, 2013Netherlands: Present, introduced
GBIF, 2013Portugal: Present
EPPO, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Azores: Present
EPPO, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Madeira: Present
EPPO, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Turkey: Present, introduced
GBIF, 2013
Distribution map (africa) Cape Verde: Present, introduced
USDA-ARS, 2013Cyprus: Present, introduced
USDA-ARS, 2013Eritrea: Present, introduced
GBIF, 2013Spain: Present
EPPO, 2013Canary Islands: Present, introduced
USDA-ARS, 2013Ethiopia: Present, introduced
GBIF, 2013Greece: Present
EPPO, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Israel: Present, introduced
USDA-ARS, 2013Sicily: Present
EPPO, 2013Lebanon: Present, introduced
USDA-ARS, 2013Madagascar: Present, introduced
GBIF, 2013Malawi: Present
GBIF, 2013Madeira: Present
EPPO, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Senegal: Present
EPPO, 2013; Lebrun et al., 1993Swaziland: Present
EPPO, 2013Turkey: Present, introduced
GBIF, 2013South Africa: Present
USDA-ARS, 2013Zimbabwe: Present, introduced
GBIF, 2013
Distribution map (north america) Bermuda: Present, introduced
GBIF, 2013Guatemala: Present
GBIF, 2013; EPPO, 2013Honduras: Present
GBIF, 2013; EPPO, 2013Mexico: Present
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013; EPPO, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Puerto Rico: Present
EPPO, 2013El Salvador: Present, introduced
GBIF, 2013USA: Present
EPPO, 2013California: Present, introduced
USDA-NRCS, 2013District of Columbia: Present, introduced
USDA-NRCS, 2013Florida: Present, introduced
USDA-NRCS, 2013Hawaii: Present
EPPO, 2013; USDA-NRCS, 2013; PIER, 2013Louisiana: Present, introduced
USDA-NRCS, 2013Texas: Present, introduced
USDA-NRCS, 2013
Distribution map (central america) Colombia: Present, introduced
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013Costa Rica: Present
GBIF, 2013; EPPO, 2013Guatemala: Present
GBIF, 2013; EPPO, 2013Honduras: Present
GBIF, 2013; EPPO, 2013Mexico: Present
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013; EPPO, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Puerto Rico: Present
EPPO, 2013El Salvador: Present, introduced
GBIF, 2013USA: Present
EPPO, 2013Florida: Present, introduced
USDA-NRCS, 2013Venezuela: Present, introduced
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013
Distribution map (south america) Argentina: Present
GBIF, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Bolivia: Present, introduced
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Brazil: Present, introduced
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013Parana: Present
GBIF, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Rio Grande do Sul: Present
GBIF, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Santa Catarina: Present
GBIF, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Chile: Present, introduced, invasive
PIER, 2013Easter Island: Present, introduced, invasive
PIER, 2013Colombia: Present, introduced
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013Costa Rica: Present
GBIF, 2013; EPPO, 2013Ecuador: Present, introduced
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013Peru: Present, native
PIER, 2013Paraguay: Present
GBIF, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Uruguay: Present
GBIF, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Venezuela: Present, introduced
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013
Distribution map (pacific) Australia: Present
EPPO, 2013New South Wales: Present, introduced, invasive
PIER, 2013; Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2013Queensland: Present, introduced, invasive
PIER, 2013; Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2013South Australia: Localised, introduced, invasive
Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2013Tasmania: Present, introduced, invasive
Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2013Victoria: Present, introduced, invasive
Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2013Western Australia: Present, introduced, invasive
Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2013Cook Islands: Present
PIER, 2013China: Present, introduced, not invasive
PIER, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Fiji: Present
PIER, 2013; EPPO, 2013New Caledonia: Present, introduced, not invasive
PIER, 2013Norfolk Island: Present, introduced, invasive
PIER, 2013Niue: Present, introduced, invasive
PIER, 2013New Zealand: Present
PIER, 2013; EPPO, 2013Pitcairn Island: Present, introduced, invasive
PIER, 2013Taiwan: Present
GBIF, 2013