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Datasheet

Venezuela

Summary

  • Last modified:
  • 22 September 2009
    Venezuela
  • General data
  • Region: South America
  • Area (km2): 912,000
  • Climates: Tropical
  • Capital: Caracas
  • Selected Statistics, World Bank (2007)
  • Population, total: 27,483,000
  • GNI per capita, Atlas method: US$7,550
  • GNI, Atlas method: US$207,602,581,504
  • GDP: US$228,070,801,408
  • Location map

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List of Species

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The table lists the species recorded in the Compendium for this region (from the full species datasheets). It includes species that are invasive in this region, those for which there is no data on invasive status, and also species that are not invasive in the region but are reported as invasive elsewhere. This summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the distribution record. For further information, please follow the link to the datasheet.

DomainKingdomPhylumSpeciesDistributionOriginInvasiveReferences
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (Potato ring rot)Absent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Dermatophilus congolensisDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (sugarcane ratoon stunting disease)PresentBradbury, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosisLast reported 1997OIE Handistatus, 2005
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Mycobacterium bovisReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BacteriaFirmicutesMelissococcus plutoniusPresentSchotman, 1989
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniaeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma gallisepticumReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony (SC) typeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BacteriaFirmicutesSpiroplasma kunkelii (corn stunt spiroplasma)PresentDavis et al., 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
BacteriaProteobacteriaAnaplasma marginalePresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella ovisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BacteriaProteobacteriaBurkholderia pseudomalleiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BacteriaProteobacteriaCampylobacter fetus subsp. venerealisReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BacteriaProteobacteriaCoxiella burnetiiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BacteriaProteobacteriaEhrlichia ruminantiumDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BacteriaProteobacteriaErwinia amylovora (fireblight)Absent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2013
BacteriaProteobacteriaFrancisella tularensisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BacteriaProteobacteriaRalstonia solanacearum (bacterial wilt of potato)PresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 1999
BacteriaProteobacteriaRalstonia solanacearum race 2 (moko disease)PresentCABI & EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella abortusovisDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella pullorumLast reported 1981OIE Handistatus, 2005
BacteriaProteobacteriaTaylorella equigenitalisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (cassava bacterial blight)PresentBradbury, 1986; IMI, 1993; EPPO, 2014; EPPO 1999b
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (bean blight)PresentBradbury, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas citri (citrus canker)Absent, confirmed by surveyEPPO, 2014
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas fragariae (angular leaf spot)PresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2013
BacteriaProteobacteriaXylella fastidiosa (Pierce's disease of grapevines)PresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015; Hernandez Garboza & Ochoa Corona, 1994
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPhytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback)PresentIMI, 1991; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPhytophthora infestans (Phytophthora blight)PresentCMI, 1982
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPlasmopara viticola (grapevine downy mildew)PresentCMI, 1988
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaBlumeria graminis (powdery mildew of grasses and cereals)PresentSchotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2004
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaBotryotinia porri (Botrytis rot of garlic)PresentCedeño et al., 2003
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaCeratocystis fimbriata (Ceratocystis blight)WidespreadNativePontis, 1951; Malaguti, 1952a; Malaguti, 1952b; Reyes, 1988; IMI Herbarium unda; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaClaviceps africana (ergot)PresentIntroducedBandyopadhyay et al., 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaColletotrichum acutatum (black spot of strawberry)PresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2010; Cedeño et al., 2007
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaFusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Panama disease of banana)PresentIntroducedYesEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaGuignardia citricarpa (citrus black spot)Absent, confirmed by surveyEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaMicrocyclus ulei (South American leaf blight of rubber)PresentNativeYesCMI, 1990; EPPO, 2014; Lasser & Rodrigues, 1944
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaMycosphaerella fijiensis (black Sigatoka)PresentIntroducedYesJones & Mourichon, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaPhomopsis vexans (Phomopsis blight of eggplant)PresentChardon & Tora, 1934; CABI/EPPO , 2008
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaPseudocercospora angolensis (leaf spot of Citrus spp.)Absent, confirmed by surveyEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaSphaeropsis sapinea (Sphaeropsis blight)PresentMohali et al., 2002
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaTrichoconiella padwickii (stackburn disease)PresentIntroducedYesRodriguez & Nass, 1990
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaMoniliophthora perniciosa (witches' broom disease of cacao)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; CMI, 1989; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaMoniliophthora roreri (frosty pod rot)PresentYesCapriles, 1978; Phillips-Mora, 2003; CABI/EPPO, 2011; Parra et al., 2009; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPhakopsora euvitis (grape rust fungus)Absent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2007
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPhakopsora pachyrhizi (soyabean rust)PresentEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPuccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum)PresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2008
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPuccinia psidii (myrtle rust)PresentEPPO, 2014; Chardόn & Toro, 1934; CABI/EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaThecaphora solani (potato smut)PresentNativeBarrus & Muller, 1943; IMI, 1993; UK CAB International, 1993; Barrus, 1944; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaUrocystis agropyri (flag smut of wheat)PresentIMI, 1991; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaUrocystis agropyri (flag smut of wheat)PresentUK CAB International, 1991; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaFungiChytridiomycotaBatrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd)WidespreadSánchez et al., 2008
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAcarapis woodi (honeybee mite)PresentEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAceria guerreronis (coconut mite)WidespreadEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAculops lycopersici (tomato russet mite)PresentCermeli et al., 1982; Anon., 1979; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAgrius cingulatus (pink-spotted hawkmoth)Present
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAgrotis ipsilon (black cutworm)PresentCIE, 1969
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly)PresentCIE, 1995; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurodicus dispersus (whitefly)PresentEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurothrixus floccosus (woolly whitefly)PresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 1997
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnastrepha fraterculus (South American fruit fly)WidespreadNativeStone, 1942a; Caraballo, 1981; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnastrepha grandis (South American cucurbit fruit fly)LocalisedNativeBoscán et al., 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2001; Stone, 1942b; EPPO, 2014; Caraballo, 1981
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnastrepha obliqua (West Indian fruit fly)WidespreadNativeStone, 1942; Caraballo de Valdivieso, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnastrepha serpentina (sapodilla fruit fly)WidespreadNativeSteck et al., 1990; Stone, 1942a; CABI/EPPO, 2001; Caraballo, 1981; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnastrepha striata (guava fruit fly)WidespreadNativeSteck et al., 1990; Stone, 1942; CABI/EPPO, 2002; Caraballo, 1981; Schiner, 1868; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnthonomus grandis (Mexican cotton boll weevil)WidespreadIntroducedDiaz, 1978; Warner, 1966; Toledo et al., 2000; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAphis craccivora (groundnut aphid)PresentCIE, 1983
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAphis gossypii (cotton aphid)PresentUK CAB International, 1968
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid)PresentIntroducedYesCABI/EPPO, 2001; Sanchez et al., 1993; NHM
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaApis mellifera scutellata (africanized bee)PresentIntroducedTarpy undated; Cabrera et al., 2003; Thimann & Manrique, 2002
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaArtemia (brine shrimp)PresentNativeVan Stappen, 2002
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAspidiotus destructor (coconut scale)PresentCIE, 1966
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly)WidespreadCAB European, 1998; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBemisia tabaci (MEAM1) (silverleaf whitefly)PresentCABI/EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBoophilus microplusPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBrevipalpus phoenicis (false spider mite)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCallinectes sapidus (blue crab)PresentNativeGulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2001; Tavares, 2002
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCallosobruchus maculatus (cowpea weevil)WidespreadHaines, 1981
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCeratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly)PresentIntroducedYesEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCharybdis helleriiWidespreadIntroducedHernandez & Bolanos, 1995
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysomphalus aonidum (circular scale)PresentCIE, 1988; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysomphalus dictyospermi (dictyospermum scale)PresentCIE, 1969
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChthamalus proteusWidespreadNativeSouthward, 1975
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCochliomyia hominivorax (New World screwworm)WidespreadCoronado & Kowalski, 2009; OIE, 2009
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCryptotermes brevis (powderpost termite)WidespreadIntroducedYesMartorell, 1939
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCulex quinquefasciatus (southern house mosquito)WidespreadIntroducedRodríguez Coto et al., 2000
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCylas formicarius (sweet potato weevil)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; Guagliumi, 1965; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDiaphorina citri (Asian citrus psyllid)Restricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2011; Germeli et al., 2000; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDiaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale)WidespreadNakahara, 1982; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDysmicoccus brevipes (pineapple mealybug)PresentBen-Dov, 1994; CIE, 1972
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEriosoma lanigerum (woolly aphid)PresentCIE, 1975
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEulachnus rileyi (pine needle aphid)PresentIntroducedYesRosales & Cermeli, 1995
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaFerrisia virgata (striped mealybug)PresentWilliams & Granara de Willink, 1992; Ben-Dov, 1994; CIE, 1966
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaFrankliniella occidentalis (western flower thrips)PresentNakahara, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaGlycaspis brimblecombei (red gum lerp psyllid)PresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaGynaikothrips ficorum (Cuban laurel thrips)PresentUK CAB International, 1983
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHarmonia axyridis (harlequin ladybird)PresentSolano & Arcaya, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHelicoverpa zea (American cotton bollworm)PresentEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHeliothrips haemorrhoidalis (black tea thrips)PresentCIE, 1961
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHemiberlesia lataniae (latania scale)PresentCIE, 1976
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHypothenemus hampei (coffee berry borer)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaIcerya purchasi (cottony cushion scale)PresentIntroducedYesCIE, 1971; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaInsignorthezia insignis (greenhouse orthezia)PresentCIE, 1957
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLinepithema humile (Argentine ant)PresentIntroducedYes
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLiriomyza huidobrensis (serpentine leafminer)Restricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014; Spencer, 1973
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLiriomyza sativae (vegetable leaf miner)Restricted distributionSpencer &, 1986; Spencer, 1973b; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLiriomyza trifolii (American serpentine leafminer)PresentCABI/EPPO, 1997; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLissorhoptrus oryzophilus (rice water weevil)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaListroderes costirostris (vegetable weevil)PresentCIE, 1964; CABI & EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLitopenaeus vannamei (whiteleg shrimp)PresentIntroducedRosenberry , 2003
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMaconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug)PresentIntroducedYesKairo et al., 2000; Cermeli et al., 2002; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMacrosiphum euphorbiae (potato aphid)PresentIntroducedCIE, 1984
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMegaplatypus mutatusPresentNativeCABI/EPPO, 2006; Wood & Bright, 1992; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)Restricted distributionAgudelo-Silva, 1986; Doreste, 1981; EPPO, 2014; Quiros, 1978
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMythimna unipuncta (rice armyworm)PresentNativeCIE, 1967
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMyzus persicae (green peach aphid)PresentSmith & Cermeli, 1979; CIE, 1979
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaNezara viridula (green stink bug)PresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaNipaecoccus nipae (spiked mealybug)PresentBen-Dov, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2005
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOpogona sacchari (banana moth)PresentIntroducedYesDavis & Pena, 1990; CABI & EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaParatrechina longicornis (crazy ant)PresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaParthenolecanium persicae (peach scale)PresentCIE, 1979
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPectinophora gossypiella (pink bollworm)PresentIIE, 1990; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPenaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn)PresentIntroducedShrimp News, 2006
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhthorimaea operculella (potato tuber moth)WidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhyllocnistis citrella (citrus leaf miner)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug)PresentCABI/EPPO, 1999
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPlutella xylostella (diamondback moth)WidespreadSalinas, 1986
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPolyphagotarsonemus latus (broad mite)PresentCIE, 1986
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaProcambarus clarkii (red swamp crayfish)PresentIntroducedHuner , 2002a
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale)PresentEPPO, 2014; NHM, 1962
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPseudococcus viburni (osbcure mealybug)PresentEPPO, 2014; Williams & Willink, 1992
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRaoiella indica (red palm mite)PresentIntroducedYesVásquez et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRhithropanopeus harrisiiAbsent, unreliable recordIntroducedRodríguez, 1963
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRhynchophorus palmarum (South American palm weevil)PresentSimon, 1986; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSaissetia oleae (olive scale)PresentCIE, 1973
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSchistocerca nitens (gray bird grasshopper)PresentNativeYesQuiros & Cranz, 1977
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaScirtothrips dorsalis (chilli thrips)PresentIntroducedCollins et al., 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaScyphophorus acupunctatus (agave weevil)PresentVaurie, 1971; Wibmer & O'Brien, 1986; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSiphoninus phillyreae (ash whitefly)PresentArnal et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2013
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSitophilus zeamais (greater grain weevil)PresentRevetti, 1972
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSolenopsis geminata (tropical fire ant)PresentNativeISSG, 2009; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm)PresentEPPO, 2014; Solano et al., 2015
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTapinoma melanocephalum (ghost ant)PresentIntroducedGomez-Nunez, 1971
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTecia solanivora (potato tuber moth)PresentTorres, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2001; Salas, 1992
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTetranychus urticae (two-spotted spider mite)PresentGonzalez & Viloria, 1991; IIE, 1996
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaThrips palmi (melon thrips)PresentIntroducedCermeli et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 1998; Anon., 1995; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaToxoptera citricida (black citrus aphid)WidespreadSmith & Cermeli, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 1998; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTrialeurodes vaporariorum (whitefly, greenhouse)PresentEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTrogoderma granarium (khapra beetle)Absent, formerly presentEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTuta absoluta (tomato leafminer)WidespreadPovolny, 1984; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2013
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaUnaspis citri (citrus snow scale)PresentCIE, 1962; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaVarroa destructor (Varroa mite)No information availableOIE, 2009; Principal et al., 2004
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaViteus vitifoliae (grapevine phylloxera)PresentEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaWasmannia auropunctata (little fire ant)PresentNativeISSG, 2011
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXyleborus volvulusPresentNativeWood & Bright, 1992
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXylosandrus morigerus (brown twig beetle)PresentIntroducedYesWood & Bright, 1992; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAnolis aeneus (bronze anole)Absent, invalid recordDonoso-Barros, 1968
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAnolis extremus (Barbados anole)LocalisedIntroducedPeters & Donoso-Barros, 1970; Rivas et al., 2012
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAstronotus ocellatus (oscar)Absent, unreliable recordNativeRobins et al., 1991
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataBos taurus (cattle)PresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataBubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)PresentIntroducedLong, 2003; Borghese, 2005
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCapra hircus (goats)Restricted distributionIntroducedYesISSG, 2011
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCichla ocellaris (peacock cichlid)WidespreadNativeKullander & Ferreira, 2006; Willis et al., 2012; Winemiller, 2001; Espínola et al., 2015
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataColumba livia (pigeons)PresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCtenosaura similis (black spiny-tailed iguana)LocalisedIntroducedYesBarrio-Amorós & Rivas-Fuenmayor, 2008; Flores & Esqueda, 2008
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCyprinus carpio (common carp)PresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Lever, 1998
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataDidelphis marsupialis (common opossum)WidespreadNativeIUCN, 2015
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataEquus caballus [ISC] (horse)LocalisedIntroducedPacheco & Herrera, 1997
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataHoplosternum littorale (armoured catfish)PresentNativeFishBase, 2004
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataIctalurus punctatus (channel catfish)PresentIntroducedNava, 2007
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataIguana iguana (iguana)PresentSchotman, 1989
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataLepomis gibbosus (pumpkinseed)PresentWelcomme, 1988
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataLepomis macrochirus (bluegill)PresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMolothrus bonariensis (shiny cowbird)PresentNativeISSG, 2011
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMus musculus (house mouse)PresentSchotman, 1989
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout)PresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese & Pauly, 2004
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia)PresentIntroducedPullin et al., 1997; Froese & Pauly, 2004
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia)PresentIntroducedPullin et al., 1997
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOvis aries (sheep)PresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPoecilia reticulata (guppy)PresentNativeFroese & Pauly, 2007
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPsittacula krameri (rose-ringed parakeet)Absent, formerly presentIntroducedBirdLife International, 2009; Nebot, 1999; M. Braun, Inst. of Pharmacy and Molecular Biotech., Univ. of Heidelberg, Germany, pers. comm., 2009
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPterois volitans (lionfish)PresentIntroducedSchofield, 2010
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRana catesbeiana (American bullfrog)LocalisedIntroducedKraus, 2009; Santos-Barrera et al., 2009
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRattus norvegicus (brown rat)PresentSchotman, 1989
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRattus rattus (black rat)PresentSchotman, 1989
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRhinella marina (cane toad)PresentNativeISSG, 2011
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataSalvelinus fontinalis (brook trout)PresentIntroducedFroese & Pauly, 2004; Welcomme, 1988
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataTyto alba (Barn owl)PresentNativeBruce, 1999
EukaryotaMetazoaCnidariaTubastraea coccinea (orange-cup coral)PresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaCorbicula fluminea (Asian clam)PresentIntroducedYesMartinez, 1987
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaCornu aspersum (common garden snail)PresentIntroducedYesWikipedia, 2009
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaCrassostrea gigas (Pacific oyster)PresentIntroducedYoo, 1976
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaDeroceras laeve (meadow slug)PresentIntroducedYesFernandez de, 1982
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaEualetes tulipaPresentMiloslavich & Penchaszadeh, 1992; Miloslavich, 1996
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaLissachatina fulica (giant African land snail)PresentIntroducedYesVogler et al., 2013; EPPO, 2013; Martinez-Escarbassiere & Martinez-Moreno, 1997
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaMarisa cornuarietis (giant ramshorn)WidespreadNativeCowie & Hayes, 2012; Cowie & Thiengo, 2003; Horgan et al., 2014; Pointier, 2015
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaMelanoides tuberculata (red-rimmed melania)WidespreadIntroducedYesChrosciechowski, 1973
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaMytilopsis sallei (Caribbean false mussel)PresentNativeEscarbassiere & Almeida, 1976; Marelli & Gray, 1983
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaPerna viridis (Asian green mussel)PresentIntroducedBenson et al., 2001; DFAS, 2005
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaPinctada imbricata radiata (rayed pearl oyster)PresentNativeLeal, 2002
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaAphelenchoides ritzemabosi (Chrysanthemum foliar eelworm)PresentMeredith & Yepez, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaDitylenchus dipsaci (stem and bulb nematode)PresentMeredith, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaGlobodera pallida (white potato cyst nematode)PresentIntroducedFranco et al., 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaGlobodera rostochiensis (yellow potato cyst nematode)PresentNativeDAO et al., 1971; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaHelicotylenchus multicinctus (banana spiral nematode)PresentSiddiqi, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2003
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode)PresentCrozzoli et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2003
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne hapla (root knot nematode)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode)WidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2002
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne mayaguensisPresentEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaPratylenchus coffeae (banana root nematode)WidespreadSiddiqi, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaRadopholus similis (burrowing nematode)PresentHaddad et al., 1973; CABI/EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaRhadinaphelenchus cocophilus (red ring nematode)WidespreadFenwick, 1959; CABI & EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaScutellonema bradys (yam nematode)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaTrichinellaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaTylenchulus semipenetrans (citrus root nematode)WidespreadCrozzoli & Funes, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014; Torrealba, 1969
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesTaenia soliumPresentOIE, 2009
EukaryotaPlanctomycetes [kingdom]Chlamydophila abortusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EukaryotaPlantaeChlorophytaCaulerpa taxifolia (killer algae)PresentGuiry & Guiry, 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeChlorophytaUlva reticulata (ribbon sea lettuce)PresentIntroducedYesPerez et al., 2007; Ardito & Garcia, 2009; Barrios et al., 2004
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaAdiantum raddianum (delta maidenhair fern)PresentNativeHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaAzolla filiculoides (water fern)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaBlechnum occidentale (palm fern)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaChristella dentata (soft fern)WidespreadIntroducedGBIF, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaPteridium aquilinum (bracken)PresentNativeThomson & Alonso-Amelot, 2002
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaSalvinia auriculata (giant salvinia)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaSalvinia minimaPresentNativeGBIF, 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaAcanthophora spiciferaPresentNativeGanesan, 1990; Taylor, 1960
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaEucheuma spp.PresentIntroducedRincones & Rubio, 1999
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaHypnea musciformisPresentNativeGanesan, 1990; Taylor, 1960
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaKappaphycusPresentIntroducedRincones & Rubio, 1999
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbrus precatorius (rosary pea)PresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez & Strong, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbutilon hirtum (Indian mallow)PresentIntroducedAchigan-Dako, 2010
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia angustissima (prairie acacia)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia decurrens (green wattle)PresentIntroduced
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia farnesiana (huisache)PresentNativeILDIS, 2002
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia glauca (wild dividivi)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia melanoxylon (Australian blackwood)PresentIntroducedILDIS, 2002
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcanthospermum australe (spiny-bur)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcanthospermum hispidum (bristly starbur)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2005
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcmella uliginosa (marsh para cress)PresentNativeFunk et al., 2007
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAdenanthera pavonina (red-bead tree)PresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgeratum conyzoides (billy goat weed)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016; Holm et al., 1979
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlbizia lebbeck (Indian siris)PresentIntroducedYesCronk & Fuler, 1995
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlbizia procera (white siris)PresentIntroducedYesCronk & Fuller, 1995
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAllamanda cathartica (yellow allamanda)PresentNativeHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlocasia macrorrhizos (giant taro)PresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlternanthera sessilis (sessile joyweed)PresentNativeFunk et al., 2007
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlysicarpus vaginalis (alyce clover)PresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus blitum (livid amaranth)PresentMorros et al., 1990; Funk et al., 2007
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus dubius (leafy amaranth)PresentNativePinto & Velásuez, 2010; GBIF, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus hybridus (smooth pigweed)PresentMorros et al., 1990
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed)PresentHolm et al., 1991
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus spinosus (spiny amaranth)PresentHolm et al., 1991
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus viridis (slender amaranth)PresentHolm et al., 1991
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAndropogon glomeratus (bushy bluestem)PresentNativeGBIF, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona cherimola (cherimoya)PresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona glabra (pond apple)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona muricata (soursop)PresentFunk et al., 2007
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona reticulata (bullock's heart)PresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez & Strong, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona squamosa (sugar apple)PresentNativeWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2010
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnredera cordifolia (Madeira vine)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAntigonon leptopus (coral vine)PresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007; Hokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArdisia elliptica (shoebutton ardisia)PresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArgemone mexicana (Mexican poppy)PresentHolm et al., 1979
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAristolochia ringens (Dutchman’s pipe)PresentFunk et al., 2007; USDA-ARS, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArthraxon hispidus (small carpetgrass)PresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArtocarpus altilis (breadfruit)PresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArundo donax (giant reed)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007; Clayton et al., 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAsclepias curassavica (bloodflower)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2011
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAsparagus densiflorus (asparagus fern)PresentIntroducedMaciel et al., 1999
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAsystasia gangetica (chinese violet)PresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAvena fatua (wild oat)PresentHafliger & Scholz, 1981
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAverrhoa bilimbi (bilimbi)PresentIntroducedMorton, 1987; Flora Mesoamericana, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAxonopus fissifoliusPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAzadirachta indica (neem tree)PresentIntroducedYesWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBambusa vulgaris (common bamboo)PresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBarleria cristata (Philippine violet)PresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBarleria lupulina (hophead Philippine violet)PresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBatis maritima (saltwort)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume)PresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBauhinia purpurea (purple bauhinia)PresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBauhinia variegata (mountain ebony)PresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBidens pilosa (blackjack)WidespreadHolm et al., 1979
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBocconia frutescens (plume poppy)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBoerhavia coccinea (scarlet spiderling)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBoerhavia diffusa (red spiderling)PresentNativeFunk et al., 2007; Quinones & Moreno, 1995
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBothriochloa ischaemum (yellow bluestem)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBothriochloa pertusa (pitted beard grass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrassica nigra (black mustard)PresentIntroducedGBIF, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrugmansia candida (angel's trumpet)PresentHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrugmansia suaveolens (white angel's trumpet)PresentNativeGBIF, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBuddleja davidii (butterfly bush)PresentGBIF, 2009
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCaesalpinia pulcherrima (peacock flower)PresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez & Strong, 2012; ILDIS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalliandra houstoniana var. calothyrsus (calliandra)Present
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCallisia repensPresentNativeHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalopogonium mucunoides (calopo)PresentNativeHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalotropis procera (apple of sodom)PresentIntroducedYesWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2003
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCanna indica (canna lilly)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCardiospermum grandiflorum (balloon vine)PresentEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCardiospermum halicacabum (balloon vine)PresentNativeFunk et al., 2007
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCassia fistula (Indian laburnum)PresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCassia grandis (pink shower)PresentUSDA-ARS, 2014; ILDIS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCassia javanica (pink shower)PresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCassytha filiformis (love-vine)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCastilla elastica (Mexican rubber tree)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCasuarina cunninghamiana (Australian beefwood)PresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCasuarina equisetifolia (casuarina)PresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCatharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)PresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCecropia peltata (trumpet tree)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2007
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCedrela odorata (Spanish cedar)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCenchrus ciliaris (Buffel grass)PresentIntroducedVillarreal et al., 2010; GBIF, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCenchrus echinatus (southern sandbur)WidespreadHolm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCentella asiatica (Asiatic pennywort)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCentratherum punctatum (lark daisy)PresentNativeHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCestrum diurnum (day jessamine)PresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChamaecrista nictitans (sensitive partridge pea)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChenopodium murale (nettleleaf goosefoot)PresentHolm et al., 1991
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChloris barbata (purpletop chloris)PresentHafliger & Scholz, 1981
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChromolaena odorata (Siam weed)PresentNativeGautier, 1992b
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCinchona pubescens (quinine tree)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2003
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCinnamomum verum (cinnamon)PresentIntroducedZumbroich, 2005
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCleome rutidosperma (fringed spiderflower)PresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2008; Ruiz-Zapata, 1989
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCleome viscosa (Asian spiderflower)PresentVillarreal et al., 2010; Hokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClerodendrum thomsoniae (bleeding glory bower)Present only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFunk et al., 2007
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClidemia hirta (Koster's curse)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClusia roseaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCocos nucifera (coconut)PresentIntroducedHenderson et al., 1995
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaColocasia esculenta (taro)PresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCommelina diffusa (spreading dayflower)PresentCiba, 1982
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConyza bonariensis (hairy fleabane)PresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConyza canadensis (Canadian fleabane)PresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1997
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConyza sumatrensis (tall fleabane)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2004
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCopaifera officinalis (copaiba balsam)PresentNativeILDIS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCordia alliodora (Ecuador laurel)Present
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCosmos caudatus (wild cosmos)PresentNativeFunk et al., 2007
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrotalaria retusa (rattleweed)PresentIntroducedILDIS, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCryptostegia grandiflora (rubber vine)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2003
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCryptostegia madagascariensis (Madagascar rubbervine)PresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007; Hokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCuphea carthagenensis (Colombian waxweed)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015; Barroso, 1954
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCupressus sempervirens (Mediterranean cypress)PresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCuscuta epithymum (alfalfa dodder)PresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyanthillium cinereum (little ironweed)PresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCymbopogon citratus (citronella grass)PresentAndrade Rodriguez, 2002
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass)WidespreadIntroducedHolm et al., 1979
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCynodon nlemfuensis (African Bermuda-grass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus difformis (small-flowered nutsedge)PresentIntroducedGómez-Laurito, 2003
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus esculentus (yellow nutsedge)PresentHolm et al., 1979; USDA-ARS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus imbricatus (shingle flatsedge)PresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus iria (rice flatsedge)PresentHäfliger et al., 1982
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus meyenianus (Meyen's flatsedge)PresentNativeFunk et al., 2007; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus papyrus (papyrus)PresentIntroducedGBIF, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus rotundus (purple nutsedge)PresentHolm et al., 1979; Govaerts, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDactyloctenium aegyptium (crowfoot grass)PresentNativePittier, 1937
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDatura innoxia (downy thorn apple)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDatura stramonium (jimsonweed)PresentHolm et al., 1979
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDelonix regia (flamboyant)PresentIntroducedILDIS, 2009
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDesmodium incanum (creeping beggerweed)PresentNativeILDIS, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDichanthium annulatum (Kleberg's bluestem)PresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria ciliaris (southern crabgrass)PresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria insularis (sourgrass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDiodia teres (poorjoe)PresentNativeWunderlin & Hansen, 2003
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDioscorea alata (white yam)PresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDioscorea bulbifera (air potato)PresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDrymaria cordata (tropical chickweed)PresentHolm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997; Hokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea)PresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEchinochloa colona (junglerice)PresentHolm et al., 1979; Clayton et al., 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEchinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass)PresentIntroducedZuloaga & Morrone, 2003
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEchinochloa pyramidalisPresentIntroducedCunha & Bryan, 1974
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEichhornia azureaRestricted distributionNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2009; World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, 2009; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth)PresentGopal, 1987; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElaeis guineensis (African oil palm)PresentCABI, 2005
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElephantopus mollis (elephant's foot)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEleusine indica (goose grass)WidespreadIntroducedHolm et al., 1979; Medrano et al., 1999
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEmilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower)PresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEmilia sonchifolia (red tasselflower)PresentHolm et al., 1997
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis lehmanniana (Lehmann lovegrass)PresentIntroducedPeterson et al., 2001; Soreng et al., 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErechtites valerianifolius (tropical burnweed)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2012; Belcher, 1956
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErigeron karvinskianus (Karwinsky’s fleabane)PresentIntroducedDorr et al., 2000; Pruski, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErodium cicutarium (common storksbill)PresentIntroducedGBIF, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErythrina berteroana (coralbean)PresentNativeILDIS, 2016
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErythrina poeppigiana (coral tree)Present
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEucalyptus globulus (Tasmanian blue gum)Present
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEugenia uniflora (Surinam cherry)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia heterophylla (wild poinsettia)PresentDebrot & Centeno, 1985
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia hirta (garden spurge)PresentHolm et al., 1979
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge)PresentNativeGBIF, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFalcataria moluccana (batai wood)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2009
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus benjamina (weeping fig)PresentIntroducedBerg et al., 2000
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus elastica (rubber plant)PresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez & Strong, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus microcarpa (Indian laurel tree)PresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez & Strong, 2012; WBN Flora Database, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus pumila (creeping fig)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus religiosa (sacred fig tree)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFimbristylis littoralis (lesser fimbristylis)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFoeniculum vulgare (fennel)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGalinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier)Present
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGalinsoga quadriradiata (shaggy soldier)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGeoffroea decorticans (Chilean palo verde)Present, few occurrencesNativeBurkart, 1949
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGliricidia sepium (mother of cocoa)PresentIntroducedILDIS, 2002; WAC, 2005
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGomphocarpus physocarpus (balloon cotton bush)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGrevillea robusta (silky oak)PresentIntroduced
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGunnera tinctoria (giant rhubarb)PresentEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHaematoxylum campechianum (logwood)PresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHedychium coccineum (scarlet ginger lily)PresentIntroducedHoyos, 1985; Smithsonian Institution, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily)PresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHeliconia bihai (macaw flower)PresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHeliocarpus americanus (white moho)WidespreadNativeLay, 1949; USDA-ARS, 2012; Grandtner & Chevrette, 2013; Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHeliotropium indicum (Indian heliotrope)PresentHolm et al., 1977; Johnston, 1928; Pacheco & Pèrez, 1989
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHolcus lanatus (common velvet grass)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHydrilla verticillata (hydrilla)PresentIntroducedSchotman, 1989
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHylocereus undatus (dragon fruit)PresentNative
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHymenachne amplexicaulis (hymenachne)PresentNativeFLAS, 2014; FLAS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHyparrhenia rufa (Jaragua grass)PresentIntroducedYesClayton et al., 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera hirsuta (hairy indigo)PresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera suffruticosa (Anil indigo)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera tinctoria (true indigo)PresentIntroducedBritton & Wilson, 1924; Funk et al., 2007; ILDIS, 2014; Bisby et al., 1994
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera trita (Asian indigo)PresentILDIS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea ochracea (fence morning-glory)PresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2008; López & Ramírez, 2004
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory)PresentNativeDavidse et al., 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea triloba (three-lobe morning glory)PresentGunn & Ritchie, 1982
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIschaemum rugosum (saramollagrass)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda)PresentIntroduced
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJatropha curcas (jatropha)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008; Funk et al., 2007
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush)WidespreadNativeHickman, 1974; Heard et al., 2002; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2009; Padua et al., 1999; Ocampo & Balick, 2009; Pittier, 1942
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJuncus effusus (common rush)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016; Balslev, 1996; Kirschner, 2002
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJuncus tenuis (slender rush)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJusticia pectoralis (freshcut)PresentNativeHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaKalanchoe daigremontiana (devil's backbone)PresentIntroducedYesHerrera & Nassar, 2009
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaKalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells)PresentIntroducedBoiteau & Allorge-Boiteau, 1995; BDG Program, 2003
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLagerstroemia indica (Indian crape myrtle)PresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLantana camara (lantana)PresentNativeMorton, 1994
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeersia hexandra (southern cut grass)PresentPyrah, 1969
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLemna minutaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeonotis nepetifolia (Christmas candlestick)PresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeonurus japonicus (honeyweed)PresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeucaena leucocephala (leucaena)PresentIntroducedILDIS, 2007
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLimnobium laevigatum (South American spongeplant)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLindernia crustacea (Malaysian false pimpernel)PresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLolium temulentum (darnel)PresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLudwigia hyssopifolia (water primrose)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLudwigia peploides (water primrose)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 1997; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLythrum maritimum (pukamole)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMangifera indica (mango)PresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaManilkara zapota (sapodilla)Present
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMarrubium vulgare (horehound)PresentIntroducedGBIF, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMegathyrsus maximus (Guinea grass)PresentIntroducedYesHolm et al., 1979
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelicoccus bijugatus (Spanish lime)PresentNativeHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelilotus albus (honey clover)PresentIntroducedCardenas & Coulston, 1967
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelinis minutiflora (molasses grass)PresentIntroducedYesIABIN, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelinis repens (natal redtop)WidespreadIntroducedGBIF, 2012; Pittier et al., 1945
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMerremia tuberosa (woodrose)PresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMesosphaerum pectinatum (comb bushmint)WidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMikania micrantha (bitter vine)PresentCock, 1979
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMimosa casta (graceful mimosa)PresentNativeFunk et al., 2007; Hokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMimosa diplotricha (giant sensitive plant)PresentNativeAnon., 2001a
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMimosa pigra (catclaw mimosa)PresentNativeWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMimosa pudica (sensitive plant)PresentNativeHolm et al., 1977
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMomordica charantia (bitter gourd)PresentScholz, 1988
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMoringa oleifera (horse-radish tree)Present
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMucuna pruriens (velvet bean)Present only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFunk et al., 2007; ILDIS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMurdannia nudiflora (doveweed)WidespreadIntroducedYesHolm et al., 1977
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMyroxylon balsamum (Peru balsam)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; ILDIS, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNicotiana glauca (tree tobacco)PresentGonzález et al., 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNicotiana tabacum (tobacco)Present only in captivity/cultivationFunk et al., 2007
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOcimum tenuiflorum (holy basil)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2014; Govaerts, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOeceoclades maculata (monk orchid)PresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOpuntia elatior (red-flower prickly pear)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOpuntia monacantha (common prickly pear)PresentIntroducedGBIF, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOpuntia stricta (erect prickly pear)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2007; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2007
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOryza rufipogon (wild rice)PresentTakeoka, 1963
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOxalis corniculata (creeping woodsorrel)PresentQ-bank, 2013; Holm et al., 1991
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaParkinsonia aculeata (Mexican palo-verde)PresentNative
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaParthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed)WidespreadNativeDale, 1981; Holm et al., 1991; Aneja et al., 1991; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalidium geminatum (Egyptian paspalidium)PresentNativeRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum conjugatum (sour paspalum)PresentHolm et al., 1979
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum distichum (knotgrass)PresentNativeHäfliger & Scholz, 1980
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora edulis (passionfruit)PresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower)PresentNativeHernandez-Garboza & Ochoa-Corona, 1994; Killip, 1938; Holm et al., 1997
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora ligularis (sweet granadilla)WidespreadNativeDavidse et al., 1994
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora suberosa (corkystem passionflower)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora tarminiana (banana passionfruit)Present only in captivity/cultivationNativeCoppens d'Eeckenbrugge et al., 2001
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora tripartita var. mollissima (banana passionfruit)WidespreadNativeKillip, 1938; Holm-Nielsen et al., 1988
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPennisetum clandestinum (kikuyu grass)PresentIntroducedYesMachado & Zuvia, 1995
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPennisetum polystachion (mission grass)PresentIntroducedHafliger & Scholz, 1981
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPennisetum purpureum (elephant grass)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPennisetum setaceum (fountain grass)PresentIntroducedGBIF, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPersicaria punctata (dotted smartweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPetiveria alliacea (guinea hen weed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass)Present
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhaseolus lunatus (lima bean)PresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007; USDA-ARS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhyllanthus urinaria (leafflower)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2003
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhysalis angulata (cutleaf groundcherry)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013; Hokche, 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhysalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPimenta racemosa (bay rum tree)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPinus caribaea (Caribbean pine)PresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPinus elliottii (slash pine)Present
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPinus oocarpa (ocote pine)Present
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPinus patula (Mexican weeping pine)Present
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPiper aduncum (spiked pepper)PresentNativeStarr et al., 2003
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPistia stratiotes (water lettuce)PresentHolm et al., 1979
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPithecellobium dulce (Manila tamarind)PresentNative
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlantago major (broad-leaved plantain)PresentWatson, 1977; Holm et al., 1979
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlectranthus amboinicus (Indian borage)PresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlectranthus scutellarioides (coleus)PresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014a
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPluchea carolinensis (sourbush)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPoa annua (annual meadowgrass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolycarpon tetraphyllum (fourleaf allseed)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPortulaca oleracea (purslane)PresentIntroducedRincones, 1992
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPortulaca pilosa (kiss-me-quick)PresentNativeVillarreal et al., 2010; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaProsopis juliflora (mesquite)PresentNativeYesBurkart, 1976
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPrunella vulgaris (self-heal)PresentIntroducedWCSP, 2016
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPrunus serotina (black cherry)PresentIntroducedVanhellemont, 2009
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPsidium cattleianum (strawberry guava)PresentIntroducedHoyos, 1989
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPsidium guajava (guava)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012; World Agroforestry Centre, 2002
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPterolepis glomerata (false meadowbeauty)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; Roskov et al., 2015; Almeda, 1990
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPtychosperma macarthurii (Macarthur palm)PresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez & Strong, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRhizophora mangle (red mangrove)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRicinus communis (castor bean)PresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRivina humilis (bloodberry)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRottboellia cochinchinensis (itch grass)Restricted distributionIntroducedHolm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRoystonea oleracea (Caribbean royal palm)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRubus rosifolius (roseleaf raspberry)PresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRumex acetosella (sheep's sorrel)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRumex crispus (curled dock)PresentHolm et al., 1979
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRumex obtusifolius (broad-leaved dock)PresentIntroducedYesHolm et al., 1979
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSacciolepis indica (glen woodgrass)PresentIntroducedPlantas Vasculares, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSagittaria latifolia (broadleaf arrowhead)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSalvia occidentalis (West Indian sage)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSamanea saman (rain tree)PresentNativeEscalante, 1997; ILDIS, 2002
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSanchezia parvibracteata (sanchezia)PresentHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaScaevola taccada (beach naupaka)PresentIntroducedGrande & Nozawa, 2010
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSchinus molle (false pepper tree)Present
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSchizolobium parahyba (Brazilian fern tree)Present
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna bacillaris (whitebark senna)PresentNativeFunk et al., 2007; USDA-ARS, 2014; Panama Checklist, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna multijuga (November shower)PresentFunk et al., 2007; USDA-ARS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna obtusifolia (sicklepod)PresentIrwin & Turner, 1960
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna occidentalis (coffee senna)PresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna siamea (yellow cassia)PresentIntroducedILDIS, 2007
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna spectabilis (whitebark senna)PresentIntroducedIrwin & Barneby, 1982; Funk et al., 2007; USDA-ARS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSesbania punicea (red sesbania)PresentIzaguirre, 2005
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSesbania sericea (silky sesban)PresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSesbania sesban (sesban)PresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSetaria palmifolia (palm grass)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSetaria parviflora (knotroot foxtail)PresentNativeGBIF, 2012; Holm et al., 1979
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSetaria verticillata (bristly foxtail)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSida acuta (sida)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum mammosum (nipplefruit nightshade)PresentHanelt et al., 2001; USDA-ARS, 2014; Lim, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum nigrum (black nightshade)Present
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum seaforthianum (Brazilian nightshade)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum tuberosum (potato)PresentUSDA-ARS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014; Kuntze, 1891
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSorghum halepense (Johnson grass)Restricted distributionIntroducedHolm et al., 1991; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpartina densifloraPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpathodea campanulata (African tulip tree)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpermacoce verticillata (shrubby false buttonwood)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSphagneticola trilobata (wedelia)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSporobolus pyramidatus (whorled dropseed)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016; Giraldo-Cañas & Peterson, 2009
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachys arvensis (staggerweed)PresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachytarpheta cayennensis (blue snakeweed)Present, few occurrencesNativeFunk et al., 2007; Davidse et al., 2012; Hokche et al., 2008; USDA-ARS, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachytarpheta jamaicensis (Jamaica vervain)Present
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachytarpheta urticifolia (rattail)Absent, unreliable recordMoldenke, 1980
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStenotaphrum secundatum (buffalo grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSynedrella nodiflora (synedrella)PresentHolm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSyngonium podophyllum (arrowhead vine)PresentNativeFunk et al., 2007; Govaerts, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSyzygium cumini (black plum)PresentIntroducedMorton, 1987
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSyzygium jambos (rose apple)PresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTaraxacum officinale complex (dandelion)PresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1997
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTecoma stans (yellow bells)PresentNativePelton, 1964
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTephrosia candida (white tephrosia)PresentIntroducedILDIS, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThespesia populnea (portia tree)PresentUSDA-ARS, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThunbergia alata (black eyed Susan)PresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThunbergia fragrans (whitelady)PresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTibouchina urvilleana (princessflower)PresentHokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTribulus cistoides (false puncture vine)PresentHolm et al., 1977; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTridax procumbens (coat buttons)Restricted distributionEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTriumfetta semitriloba (burweed)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTypha angustifolia (lesser bulrush)PresentHolm et al., 1991
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTypha domingensis (southern cattail)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrena lobata (caesar weed)PresentNativeFunk et al., 2007; USDA-ARS, 2012; Hokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrena sinuata (bur mallow)PresentNativeFunk et al., 2007; Hokche et al., 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa decumbens (signal grass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa mutica (para grass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa platyphylla (broadleaf signalgrass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUtricularia gibbaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVerbena litoralis (blue vervain)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaXanthosoma sagittifolium (elephant ear)PresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaZiziphus mauritiana (jujube)PresentIntroducedMorton, 1987
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBabesia bigeminaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBabesia bovisPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaGymnodinium catenatumLocalisedBarbera-Sánchez & Gamboa-Maruez, 2001
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaPlasmodium relictumPresentNativeGabaldon & Ulloa, 1980
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaToxoplasma gondiiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTritrichomonas foetusReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTrypanosoma equiperdumDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTrypanosoma evansiDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VirusAfrican horse sickness virusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VirusAfrican swine fever virusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Virusalcelaphine herpesvirus 1Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VirusAvipoxvirusPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
VirusBanana streak diseasePresentNativeYesDiekmann & Putter, 1996; Garrido et al., 2005; Garrido et al., 2004
Virusbluetongue virusNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Virusbovine leukemia virusReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Virusbovine viral diarrhea virusDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Viruscaprine arthritis encephalitis virusLast reported 1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
VirusCitrus leprosis virus C (leprosis of citrus)PresentBitancourt, 1955; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2013
Virusclassical swine fever virusReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Virusduck hepatitis A virusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Virusequine arteritis virusDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Virusequine infectious anaemia virusReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Virusequine influenzavirusDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Virusfoot-and-mouth disease virusReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
VirusGallid herpesvirus 2Last reported 2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
Virusinfectious bursal disease virusReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Virusinfectious haematopoietic necrosis virusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Virusinfluenza A virusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VirusJapanese encephalitis virusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Viruslumpy skin disease virusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VirusMaize dwarf mosaic virus (dwarf mosaic of maize)PresentTovar & Barrientos, 1978; Anzola et al., 1980; Garrido & Trujillo, 1988; Garrido & Trujillo, 1989; Garrido & Trujillo, 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Virusmyxoma virusReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
VirusNairobi sheep disease virusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VirusPapaya ringspot virusPresentVidela, 1953; CABI/EPPO, 2003
VirusPepper mild mottle virus (PMMV)PresentRodríguez et al., 2004
Viruspeste des petits ruminants virusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VirusPotato spindle tuber viroid (spindle tuber of potato)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2014; Singh, 1983; EPPO, 2014
Virusrabbit hemorrhagic disease virusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Virusrabies virusReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
VirusRift Valley fever virusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Virusrinderpest virusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Virusspring viraemia of carp virusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VirusSugarcane mosaic virus (mosaic of abaca)PresentISSCT, 1989; EPPO, 2014
VirusSuid herpesvirus 1Disease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VirusSweet potato feathery mottle virus (internal cork disease of sweet potato)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
Virusswine vesicular disease virusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VirusTaura syndrome virusPresentCôté et al., 2008
VirusTomato yellow leaf curl virus (leaf curl)PresentZambrano et al., 2007; EPPO, 2014
VirusVenezuelan equine encephalitis virusReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Virusvesicular stomatitis virusReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Virusviral hemorrhagic septicaemia virusNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Virusvisna/maedi virusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

List of Species CSV Output

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Generate a spreadsheet of the List of Species which also includes records from basic datasheets.

Basic datasheets include data mined from various sources (including the CAB Abstracts database and selected invasive species databases). Further confirmation of distribution status should be sought before use.

Download CSV file

List of Animal Diseases

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The table lists the animal diseases recorded in the Compendium for this region (from the full disease datasheets). For further information, please follow the link to the datasheet.

DiseaseDistributionOriginInvasiveReferences
acarapisosis of honey beesPresentEPPO, 2009; OIE, 2009
African horse sicknessDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
African swine feverDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
American foulbrood of honey beesDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
anaplasmosisReported present or known to be presentJames et al., 1985; Meléndez & Forlano, 1997; Alfaro et al., 1998; Schroeder et al., 1970; OIE Handistatus, 2005
anthraxNo information availableOIE, 2009; FAO Animal Health Yearbook1971; OIE, 1997
Aujeszky's diseaseNo information availableOIE, 2009
avian chlamydiosisDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
avian infectious bronchitisDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
avian influenzaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma gallisepticum)Disease not reportedOIE, 2009
avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma synoviae)Disease never reportedOIE, 2009
avipoxPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
babesiosisPresentOIE, 2009; Simoes et al., 1995; Basalo et al., 1995; Meléndez & Forlano, 1997; Quijada et al., 1998; Melendez et al., 1996
bluetongueNo information availableOIE, 2009; Pérez et al., 1995; OIE, 1999
bovine anaplasmosisPresentOIE, 2009
bovine genital campylobacteriosisNo information availableOIE, 2009
bovine herpesvirus 1 infectionsPresentOIE, 2009
bovine spongiform encephalopathyDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
bovine tuberculosisPresentOIE, 2009
bovine venereal trichomonosisReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
bovine viral diarrhoeaPresentOIE, 2009
brucellosis (Brucella abortus)PresentOIE, 2009
brucellosis (Brucella melitensis)Disease never reportedOIE, 2009
brucellosis (Brucella ovis)Disease never reportedOIE, 2009
brucellosis (Brucella suis)No information availableOIE, 2009; OIE, 2000a
Burkholderia pseudomallei infectionsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
camel poxDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
caprine arthritis encephalitisDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
ChytridiomycosisWidespreadSánchez et al., 2008
classical swine feverDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
contagious agalactiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
contagious bovine pleuropneumoniaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
contagious caprine pleuropneumoniaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
contagious equine metritisDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
crayfish plagueDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic feverDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
dermatophilosisDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
dourineDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
duck virus hepatitisDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Edwardsiella septicaemia (Edwardsiella tarda infection)PresentClavijo et al., 2002
enzootic abortion of ewesDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
enzootic bovine leukosisPresentOIE, 2009
epizootic haematopoietic necrosisDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
epizootic ulcerative syndromeNo information availableOIE, 2009
Equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern)Disease not reportedOIE, 2009
equine infectious anaemiaPresentOIE, 2009
equine influenzaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
equine piroplasmosisDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
equine rhinopneumonitisDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
equine viral arteritisDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
European foulbroodPresentSchotman, 1989; OIE, 2009
fibropapillomatosis of sea turtlesPresentHerbst, 1994
foot-and-mouth disease in pigsReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
foot-and-mouth disease in ruminantsPresentOIE, 2009; Kitching, 1998
fowl typhoidDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
glandersDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Gyrodactylus salaris infectionNo information availableOIE, 2009
haemorrhagic septicaemiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
heartwaterDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
infectious bursal diseaseDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
infectious haematopoietic necrosisDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosisPresentOIE, 2009
infectious laryngotracheitisDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
infectious salmon anaemiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
Japanese encephalitisDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
koi herpesvirus diseaseNo information availableOIE, 2009
leishmaniosisWidespreadZerpa et al., 2000
leptospirosisPresentOIE, 2009
lumpy skin diseaseDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
malignant catarrhal feverDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Marek's diseaseDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
myxomatosisNo information availableOIE, 2009
Nairobi sheep diseaseDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Newcastle diseasePresentOIE, 2009; OIE, 2004e
Nipah virus infectionDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
paratuberculosisNo information availableOIE, 2009; Ilukevich et al., 1979
peste des petits ruminantsDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Plasmodium relictum infectionPresentNativeGabaldon & Ulloa, 1980
porcine enterovirus infectionsDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
porcine reproductive and respiratory syndromeNo information availableOIE, 2009
pullorum diseaseDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Q feverDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
rabbit haemorrhagic diseaseDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
rabiesPresentOIE, 2009; Mattos et al., 1996; Plaza et al., 1997
red sea bream iridoviral diseaseNo information availableOIE, 2009
Rift Valley feverDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
rinderpestDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
scrapieDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
sheep and goat poxDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
small hive beetle infestationDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
spring viraemia of carpDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
surraNo information availableOIE, 2009
swine vesicular diseaseDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Taura syndromePresentCôté et al., 2008
theileriosisDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
toxoplasmosisNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
transmissible gastroenteritis and porcine respiratory coronovirus infectionNo information availableOIE, 2009
TrichinellaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Tropilaelaps infestation of honey beesDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
trypanosomosisPresentOIE, 2009; Sandoval et al., 1998
tuberculosisReported present or known to be presentOIE1997; OIE Handistatus, 2005
tularaemiaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
turkey rhinotracheitisDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
varroosis of honey beesNo information availableOIE, 2009; Principal et al., 2004
Venezuelan equine encephalitisDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
vesicular stomatitisPresentOIE, 2009; Federer et al., 1967
viral haemorrhagic septicaemiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
visna/maediDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
West Nile feverDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
white spot diseaseNo information availableOIE, 2009
yellow head diseaseNo information availableOIE, 2009

List of Animal Diseases CSV Output

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Generate a spreadsheet of the List of Animal Diseases which also includes records from basic datasheets.

Basic datasheets include data mined from various sources (including the CAB Abstracts database). Further confirmation of distribution status should be sought before use.

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