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Datasheet

Malaysia

Summary

  • Last modified:
  • 22 September 2009
    Malaysia
  • General data
  • Region: South East Asia
  • Area (km2): 330,000
  • Climates: Tropical
  • Capital: Kuala Lumpur
  • Selected Statistics, World Bank (2007)
  • Population, total: 26,549,518
  • GNI per capita, Atlas method: US$6,420
  • GNI, Atlas method: US$170,476,519,424
  • GDP: US$186,718,650,368
  • Agriculture, value added: US$19,112,462,336
  • Location map

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List of Species

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The table lists the species recorded in the Compendium for this region (from the full species datasheets). It includes species that are invasive in this region, those for which there is no data on invasive status, and also species that are not invasive in the region but are reported as invasive elsewhere. This summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the distribution record. For further information, please follow the link to the datasheet.

DomainKingdomPhylumSpeciesDistributionOriginInvasiveReferences
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Dermatophilus congolensisSee datasheet for status
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (sugarcane ratoon stunting disease)Restricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosisPresent, see datasheet for details
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Mycobacterium bovisSee datasheet for status
BacteriaFirmicutesBacillus anthracisSee datasheet for status
BacteriaFirmicutesCandidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas)PresentKhew et al., 1991; Naderali et al., 2013; Neda et al., 2014; Neda et al., 2015
BacteriaFirmicutesMelissococcus plutoniusRestricted distributionOIE, 2009
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniaeSee datasheet for status
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma gallisepticumPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony (SC) typeSee datasheet for status
BacteriaProteobacteriaAcidovorax citrulli (fruit blotch)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella ovisSee datasheet for status
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella suisSee datasheet for status
BacteriaProteobacteriaBurkholderia pseudomalleiPresent, see datasheet for details
BacteriaProteobacteriaCampylobacter fetus subsp. venerealisSee datasheet for status
BacteriaProteobacteriacitrus huanglongbing (greening) disease (citrus greening)Restricted distribution
BacteriaProteobacteriaCoxiella burnetiiSee datasheet for status
BacteriaProteobacteriaEhrlichia ruminantiumSee datasheet for status
BacteriaProteobacteriaFrancisella tularensisSee datasheet for status
BacteriaProteobacteriaLiberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening)Restricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
BacteriaProteobacteriaPasteurella multocidaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
BacteriaProteobacteriaRalstonia solanacearum (bacterial wilt of potato)WidespreadEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 1999
BacteriaProteobacteriaRalstonia solanacearum race 1 (bacterial wilt of solanaceous crops)WidespreadCABI & EPPO, 1999
BacteriaProteobacteriaRalstonia solanacearum race 2 (moko disease)PresentCABI & EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella abortusovisDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella gallinarumSee datasheet for status
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella pullorumPresent, see datasheet for details
BacteriaProteobacteriaTaylorella equigenitalisSee datasheet for status
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (cassava bacterial blight)Restricted distributionEPPO, 2014
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (bean blight)Present, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas citri (citrus canker)WidespreadEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2014
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (bacterial leaf streak of rice)WidespreadEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPhytophthora cambivora (root rot of forest trees)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPhytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback)Present, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPhytophthora colocasiae (taro leaf blight)WidespreadEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPhytophthora infestans (Phytophthora blight)PresentCMI, 1982
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPlasmopara viticola (grapevine downy mildew)PresentCMI, 1988
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaCeratocystis fimbriata (Ceratocystis blight)Restricted distributionSouth & Sharples, 1925; Beeley, 1929; IMI Herbarium unda; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaColletotrichum acutatum (black spot of strawberry)PresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2010
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaFusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Panama disease of banana)PresentNativeYesEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaGuignardia citricarpa (citrus black spot)Absent, confirmed by surveyEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaMycosphaerella fijiensis (black Sigatoka)Restricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaPhomopsis vexans (Phomopsis blight of eggplant)PresentCABI/EPPO , 2008
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaPseudocercospora angolensis (leaf spot of Citrus spp.)Absent, confirmed by surveyEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaSphaeropsis sapinea (Sphaeropsis blight)PresentSutton, 1980; Punithalingham & Waterston, 1970; IMI Herbarium unda
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaTrichoconiella padwickii (stackburn disease)PresentJagoe & Henderson, 1953
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaHeterobasidion annosum sensu lato (Heterobasidion root rot)Restricted distributionEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaHeterobasidion insularePresent, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPhakopsora euvitis (grape rust fungus)PresentOno, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2007; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPhakopsora pachyrhizi (soyabean rust)PresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPhellinus noxius (brown tea root disease)PresentCABI & EPPO, 1997
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPuccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum)WidespreadEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2008
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPuccinia kuehnii (orange rust)PresentRyan & Egan, 1989; Magarey, 2000; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaSporisorium sacchari (Asian sugarcane smut)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaFungiChytridiomycotaBatrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAceria guerreronis (coconut mite)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAdoretus sinicus (Chinese rose beetle)PresentWaterhouse, 1993
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito)PresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAgrotis ipsilon (black cutworm)PresentWaterhouse, 1993; CIE, 1969
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly)Present, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurodicus destructor (coconut whitefly)WidespreadEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurodicus dispersus (whitefly)WidespreadEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAmphibalanus improvisus (bay barnacle)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant)PresentNativeISSG, 2011
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnoplophora chinensis (black and white citrus longhorn)Restricted distributionNativeLingafelter & Hoebeke, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAonidiella aurantii (red scale)PresentIIE, 1996
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAonidiella orientalis (oriental yellow scale)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAonidomytilus albus (tapioca scale)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAphis craccivora (groundnut aphid)PresentWaterhouse, 1993
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAphis gossypii (cotton aphid)PresentWaterhouse, 1993
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid)PresentIntroducedYesCABI/EPPO, 2001
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaArtemia (brine shrimp)PresentIntroducedLavens & Sorgeloos, 2000
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAspidiotus destructor (coconut scale)PresentWaterhouse, 1993
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera carambolae (carambola fruit fly)PresentEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera cucurbitae (melon fly)WidespreadYesCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly)PresentEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera latifrons (Solanum fruit fly)Restricted distributionEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera tauPresentWhite & Elson-Harris, 1994
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera umbrosaPresentWhite & Elson-Harris, 1994
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly)PresentWaterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBlattella germanica (German cockroach)PresentIntroducedAbdullah et al., 1993
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBoophilus microplusPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBrevipalpus phoenicis (false spider mite)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBrontispa longissima (coconut hispine beetle)Absent, unreliable recordKalshoven & Laan, 1981; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCalacarus carinatus (purple tea mite)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCallinectes sapidus (blue crab)PresentIntroducedSmithsonian Marine Station (SMS), 2001
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCallosobruchus chinensis (Chinese bruchid)PresentWaterhouse, 1993
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCerataphis lataniae (palm aphid)PresentNativeQiao Zhang, 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2007; Perez-Hildalgo et al., 2000; Qiao & Zhang, 2001
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCharybdis helleriiPresent, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCharybdis japonica (lady crab)WidespreadNativeWee & Ng, 1995
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCherax quadricarinatus (redclaw crayfish)PresentIntroducedChang, 2001
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChilo suppressalis (striped rice stem borer)WidespreadNativeYesCIE, 1977; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysomphalus aonidum (circular scale)PresentEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysomphalus dictyospermi (dictyospermum scale)PresentCIE, 1969
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm)PresentNativeYesWardhana et al., 2012b; Norris & Murray, 1964
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCochliomyia hominivorax (New World screwworm)Disease never reportedOIE, 2009
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaConopomorpha cramerella (cocoa pod borer)Restricted distributionEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCoptotermes (termites)PresentTho et al., 1992
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCoptotermes curvignathus (rubber termite)PresentNativeWaterhouse, 1993
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCulex quinquefasciatus (southern house mosquito)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCylas formicarius (sweet potato weevil)WidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDiaphorina citri (Asian citrus psyllid)Present, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDinoderus minutus (bamboo borer)PresentNativeWu et al., 1986; Chu & Zhang, 1997
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDysmicoccus brevipes (pineapple mealybug)PresentWaterhouse, 1993; Ben-Dov, 1994
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDysmicoccus neobrevipes (grey pineapple mealybug)PresentGarcía et al., 2016
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaErionota thrax (banana skipper)PresentEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaErionota torus (banana skipper)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEuwallacea destruensPresentNativeWood Bright, 1992
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEuwallacea fornicatus (tea shot-hole borer)WidespreadEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2013
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEuwallacea piceusPresentNativeWood Bright, 1992
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaFerrisia virgata (striped mealybug)PresentKaydan & Gullan, 2012; Waterhouse, 1993
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaFrankliniella occidentalis (western flower thrips)PresentIntroducedYesWaterhouse, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaGynaikothrips ficorum (Cuban laurel thrips)PresentJacot-Guillarmod & Brothers, 1986
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHelicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm)PresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHeliothrips haemorrhoidalis (black tea thrips)WidespreadKudô, 1995
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHemiberlesia lataniae (latania scale)PresentChu & Wood, 1990
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHemiberlesia rapax (greedy scale (USA))PresentAPPPC, 1987
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHeteropsylla cubana (leucaena psyllid)PresentGuan-Soon et al., 1990; Showler & Melcher, 1995
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHypothenemus hampei (coffee berry borer)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaIcerya purchasi (cottony cushion scale)PresentIntroducedYesWaterhouse, 1993; CIE, 1971; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaIdioscopus nitidulus (mango leafhopper)PresentViraktamath, 1989; Waterhouse, 1993
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaInsignorthezia insignis (greenhouse orthezia)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLiriomyza huidobrensis (serpentine leafminer)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; IIE, 1996; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLiriomyza sativae (vegetable leaf miner)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLiriomyza trifolii (American serpentine leafminer)Absent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLitopenaeus vannamei (whiteleg shrimp)WidespreadIntroducedRosenberry , 2004
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMaconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug)PresentNativeEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMacrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn)PresentNativeNew, 2000b
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMacrosiphum euphorbiae (potato aphid)PresentIntroducedNHM
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMonomorium destructor (Singapore ant)PresentNativeISSG, 2011
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMyzus persicae (green peach aphid)PresentWaterhouse, 1993
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaNezara viridula (green stink bug)Restricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 1998
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaNipaecoccus viridis (spherical mealybug)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOryctes rhinoceros (coconut rhinoceros beetle)WidespreadEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOtiorhynchus sulcatus (vine weevil)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPapilio demoleus (chequered swallowtail)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaParacoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug)PresentMastoi et al., 2011; CABI/EPPO, 2012
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaParatrechina longicornis (crazy ant)PresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPectinophora gossypiella (pink bollworm)PresentIIE, 1990; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPenaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn)PresentNativeHolthuis, 1980; Dore & Frimodt, 1987
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPheidole megacephala (big-headed ant)PresentLoke & Lee, 2004
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhenacoccus manihoti (cassava mealybug)PresentDewi Sartiami et al., 2015
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhyllocnistis citrella (citrus leaf miner)WidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPineus pini (pine woolly aphid)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug)PresentWaterhouse, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 1999
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPlutella xylostella (diamondback moth)WidespreadCIE, 1967
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPolyphagotarsonemus latus (broad mite)PresentWaterhouse, 1993
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPrays citri (citrus flower moth)PresentEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale)PresentEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaQuadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp)PresentIntroducedISSG, 2011; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRastrococcus invadens (fruit tree mealybug)PresentWilliams, 1986; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 1998
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRhynchophorus ferrugineus (red palm weevil)Restricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRhyzopertha dominica (lesser grain borer)PresentSeth, 1975; Muda, 1985
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSaissetia oleae (olive scale)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaScirtothrips dorsalis (chilli thrips)PresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2010
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSitobion miscanthi (indian grain aphid)PresentNativeBlackman & Eastop, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2003
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSitophilus granarius (grain weevil)PresentMariana et al., 2009
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSitophilus oryzae (lesser grain weevil)PresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSitophilus zeamais (greater grain weevil)PresentChamp & Dyte, 1976
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSitotroga cerealella (grain moth)WidespreadChamp & Dyte, 1977; Muda, 1985
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSolenopsis geminata (tropical fire ant)PresentIntroducedYesLee et al., 2002; ISSG, 2009; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSolenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant)PresentIntroducedYesISSG, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSpodoptera exempta (black armyworm)PresentEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSpodoptera litura (taro caterpillar)WidespreadEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSternochetus mangiferae (mango seed weevil)Absent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTapinoma melanocephalum (ghost ant)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTetranychus urticae (two-spotted spider mite)PresentWaterhouse, 1993
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaThrips palmi (melon thrips)WidespreadWaterhouse, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 1998; CABI & EPPO, 1998; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaToxoptera citricida (black citrus aphid)WidespreadEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTrialeurodes ricini (castor bean whitefly)PresentNativeMound & Halsey, 1978; Martin, 1987; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTrogoderma granarium (khapra beetle)EradicatedEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTropilaelapsPresentKoeniger et al., 2002
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaUnaspis citri (citrus snow scale)PresentEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaVarroa destructor (Varroa mite)PresentOIE, 2009
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaVespa velutina (Asian Hornet)PresentEPPO, 2007
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaWasmannia auropunctata (little fire ant)Present
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXyleborus perforans (island pinhole borer)PresentNativeUK CAB International, 1973; Wood Bright, 1992
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXyleborus similisPresentNativeWood Bright, 1992
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXyleborus volvulusPresentIntroducedYesWood Bright, 1992
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXylosandrus aterPresentNativeWood Bright, 1992
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXylosandrus compactus (shot-hole borer)PresentNativeWaterhouse, 1993; CABI/EPPO &, 1997; EPPO, 2013
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXylosandrus crassiusculus (Asian ambrosia beetle)PresentNativeWood Bright, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXylosandrus discolorPresentNativeWood Bright, 1992
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXylosandrus morigerus (brown twig beetle)PresentNativeWood Bright, 1992; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXylosandrus mutilatus (camphor shoot beetle)WidespreadNativeCoyle, 2006
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAcanthogobius flavimanusPresentNativeGBIF, 2005
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAcridotheres tristis (common myna)PresentNativeISSG, 2011
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAristichthys nobilis (bighead carp)PresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; FishBase, 2004; Froese Pauly, 2004
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataBos taurus (cattle)PresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataBubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCallosciurus erythraeus (Pallas's squirrel)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCapra hircus (goats)PresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCarassius auratus auratus (goldfish)PresentIntroducedFroese & Pauly, 2009
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCichla ocellaris (peacock cichlid)PresentIntroducedChong et al., 2010
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataClarias batrachus (walking catfish)PresentNativeKottelat , 1998; Froese Pauly, 2004
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataClarias gariepinusPresentIntroducedYesFAO, 1997
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataColumba livia (pigeons)PresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCorvus splendens (house crow)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCtenopharyngodon idella (grass carp)PresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; FishBase, 2004; Froese Pauly, 2004
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCyprinus carpio (common carp)PresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Alikhuni, 1966
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataDicrurus macrocercusPresent, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataEpinephelus lanceolatus (giant grouper)PresentNativeHeemstra & Randall, 1993; Froese Pauly, 2004
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataGambusia affinis (western mosquitofish)PresentIntroducedFroese & Pauly, 2010
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataGambusia holbrooki (eastern mosquitofish)PresentIntroducedYesFroese & Pauly, 2008
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataGarrulax canorus (Chinese hwamei)See datasheet for status
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataHerpestes javanicus (small Indian mongoose)PresentNativeISSG, 2011
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataHypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp)PresentIntroducedFroese Pauly, 2004; FishBase, 2005
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataHypostomus plecostomus (suckermouth catfish)PresentIntroducedBartley, 2006
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataIctalurus punctatus (channel catfish)Present only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFreshwater Fisheries Research Centre Malaysia (FFRC), 2001
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataLutjanus kasmira (blueline snapper)WidespreadNativeAllen, 1985
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMacaca fascicularis (crab-eating macaque)PresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMicropterus salmoides (largemouth bass)LocalisedIntroducedAng & Gopinath, 1989; Froese Pauly, 2004
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMonopterus albus (Asian swamp eel)PresentNativeFishbase, 2004
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMylopharyngodon piceus (black amur)PresentDepartment of Fisheries, 1987
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout)PresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese Pauly, 2004
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia)PresentIntroducedPullin et al., 1997; Froese Pauly, 2004
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia)PresentIntroducedPullin et al., 1997; Froese Pauly, 2004; Ang & Gopinath, 1989; Chong et al., 2010
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOryctolagus cuniculus (rabbits)PresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOvis aries (sheep)PresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPoecilia reticulata (guppy)PresentIntroducedFroese & Pauly, 2007
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPterois volitans (lionfish)PresentNativeFroese & Pauly, 2010
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRana catesbeiana (American bullfrog)PresentIntroducedHardouin, 1997; Teixeira et al., 2001; FAO, 2005; Kraus, 2009; Santos-Barrera et al., 2009
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRattus exulans (Pacific rat)PresentMedway, 1978; Embi, 1980
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRattus rattus (black rat)Unconfirmed recordCAB Abstracts
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataSus scrofa [ISC] (feral pig)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataTilapia zillii (redbelly tilapia)Absent, formerly presentIntroducedWohlfarth & Hulata, 1983; Froese Pauly, 2004
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataTrachemys scripta elegans (red-eared slider)PresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataTyto alba (Barn owl)Present, few occurrencesNativeWells, 2007
EukaryotaMetazoaCnidariaTubastraea coccinea (orange-cup coral)PresentISSG, 2011
EukaryotaMetazoaEchinodermataAcanthaster planci (crown-of-thorns starfish)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaCrassostrea gigas (Pacific oyster)PresentIntroducedDIAS, 2005
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaEuglandina rosea (rosy predator snail)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaLissachatina fulica (giant African land snail)Restricted distributionMead, 1979; EPPO, 2013
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaMytilopsis sallei (Caribbean false mussel)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaPerna viridis (Asian green mussel)PresentNativeNACA, 1988
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaPinctada imbricata radiata (rayed pearl oyster)PresentNativePoutiers, 1998a
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaPomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail)PresentIntroducedYesYahaya et al., 2006; Halwart & Bartley, 2006; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaPomacea maculataPresent, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaRuditapes philippinarum (Japanese carpet shell)PresentNativeScarlato, 1981
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaAphelenchoides besseyi (rice leaf nematode)PresentMuhammed, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaDitylenchus angustus (rice stem nematode)Restricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaDitylenchus destructor (potato tuber nematode)Absent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaGlobodera pallida (white potato cyst nematode)Absent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaGlobodera rostochiensis (yellow potato cyst nematode)Absent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaHelicotylenchus multicinctus (banana spiral nematode)PresentSher, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2003
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; Muhammed, 1992
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne graminicola (rice root knot nematode)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014; Zainal-Abidin et al 1994
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne hapla (root knot nematode)PresentMuhammad, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2002
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm)WidespreadMadamba, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2002
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaPratylenchus coffeae (banana root nematode)WidespreadMuhammad, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaRadopholus similis (burrowing nematode)Restricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaTrichinellaSee datasheet for status
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaTylenchulus semipenetrans (citrus root nematode)PresentCABI/EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesBothriocephalus acheilognathiPresentIntroducedFernando & Furtado, 1964
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesTaenia soliumDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
EukaryotaMetazoaPoriferaMycale grandis (orange keyhole sponge)PresentISSG, 2011
EukaryotaPlanctomycetes [kingdom]Chlamydophila abortusSee datasheet for status
EukaryotaPlantaeChlorophytaCaulerpa taxifolia (killer algae)PresentNativeGuiry & Guiry, 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeChlorophytaUlva pertusaPresentNativePhang & Wee, 1991
EukaryotaPlantaeChlorophytaUlva reticulata (ribbon sea lettuce)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaAdiantum hispidulum (rosy maidenhair fern)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaAzolla pinnata (mosquito fern)Restricted distributionNativeWaterhouse, 1993; Mansor & Sam, 1992
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaChristella dentata (soft fern)PresentNativeGBIF, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaCyclosorus parasiticus (parasitic maiden fern)PresentNativeHolttum, 1976
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaDeparia petersenii subsp. petersenii (Petersen’s lady fern)See datasheet for status
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaLygodium japonicum (Japanese climbing fern)PresentNativeHolttum, 1959
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaLygodium microphyllum (old world climbing fern)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaMarsilea minuta (pepperwort)WidespreadPancho & Soerjani, 1978; Holttum, 1954
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaNephrolepis brownii (Asian swordfern)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaSalvinia molesta (Kariba weed)WidespreadYesAzmi, 1988; Baki et al., 1990; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaAcanthophora spiciferaPresentNativeSilva et al., 1996
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaEucheuma spp.Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaGracilaria salicorniaPresentNativeSilva et al., 1996; Yamamoto & Phang, 1997
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaKappaphycusPresentNativeDoty, 1980
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbrus precatorius (rosary pea)PresentNativePIER, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbutilon hirtum (Indian mallow)PresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbutilon indicum (country mallow)PresentNativeCurtis, 1894
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle)PresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia confusaPresent, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia crassicarpa (northern wattle)PresentIntroducedThapa, 1992
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia farnesiana (huisache)PresentIntroducedILDIS, 2002
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia longifolia (golden wattle)PresentIntroducedPIER, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia mangium (brown salwood)Present
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia mearnsii (black wattle)PresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip)WidespreadNativeHolm et al., 1979
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAdenanthera pavonina (red-bead tree)PresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002; USDA-ARS, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAeschynomene indica (Indian jointvetch)WidespreadHenderson, 1959
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgeratum conyzoides (billy goat weed)WidespreadIntroducedWaterhouse, 1993; Barnes & Chandapillai, 1972; IRRI, 1989
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAilanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven)PresentEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlbizia lebbeck (Indian siris)PresentIntroduced
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlbizia procera (white siris)PresentNative
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAleurites moluccanus (candlenut tree)PresentNativeKrisnawati et al., 2011; USDA-ARS, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAllamanda cathartica (yellow allamanda)PresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlocasia macrorrhizos (giant taro)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlpinia zerumbet (shell ginger)Present only in captivity/cultivationNativeGovaerts, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlternanthera sessilis (sessile joyweed)Restricted distributionHolm et al., 1991; Parham, 1958; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlysicarpus vaginalis (alyce clover)PresentNativeDuke, 1981; USDA-ARS, 2014; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus blitum (livid amaranth)PresentItoh et al., 1992; Townsend, 1988
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus spinosus (spiny amaranth)PresentIntroducedYesHolm et al., 1991; Waterhouse, 1993
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona muricata (soursop)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona reticulata (bullock's heart)PresentIntroducedJansen et al., 1991; USDA-ARS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona squamosa (sugar apple)PresentCABI, 2005
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArdisia crenata (coral berry)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArdisia elliptica (shoebutton ardisia)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArthraxon hispidus (small carpetgrass)PresentNativeFlora of China, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArtocarpus altilis (breadfruit)PresentNativeOrwa et al., 2009
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArundo donax (giant reed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAsclepias curassavica (bloodflower)PresentIntroducedYesUSDA-ARS, 2011
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAsphodelus tenuifolius (onionweed)PresentHolm et al., 1991
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAsystasia gangetica (chinese violet)Present
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAverrhoa bilimbi (bilimbi)PresentMorton, 1987; Bircher & Bircher, 2000; Quisumbing, 1951; Hanelt et al., 2001
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAxonopus compressus (carpet grass)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAxonopus fissifoliusPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAzadirachta indica (neem tree)WidespreadIntroducedStoney , 1997; World Agroforestry Centre, 2002
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBambusa bambos (giant thorny bamboo)PresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBambusa vulgaris (common bamboo)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBarleria prionitis (porcupine flower)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBarringtonia asiatica (sea poison tree)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume)PresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBauhinia purpurea (purple bauhinia)PresentNativeOrwa et al., 2009; ILDIS, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBauhinia variegata (mountain ebony)PresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBidens pilosa (blackjack)PresentWaterhouse, 1993
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBoerhavia coccinea (scarlet spiderling)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBoerhavia diffusa (red spiderling)PresentStemmerik, 1964
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBorreria latifolia (broadleaf buttonweed)Restricted distributionBarnes & Chan, 1990; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBothriochloa pertusa (pitted beard grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBroussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry)Present
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrugmansia suaveolens (white angel's trumpet)PresentIntroducedGBIF, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBuddleja asiatica (dog tail)PresentNativeLi & Leeuwenberg, 1996
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBuddleja davidii (butterfly bush)PresentIntroducedYesPIER, 2010
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCabomba caroliniana (Carolina fanwort)PresentIntroducedWashington State Department of Ecology, 2008; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCaesalpinia decapetala (Mysore thorn)PresentNativePIER, 2002
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCaesalpinia pulcherrima (peacock flower)PresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalophyllum inophyllum (Alexandrian laurel)Present
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalopogonium mucunoides (calopo)PresentIntroducedYesILDIS, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCardiospermum halicacabum (balloon vine)PresentWaterhouse, 1993; USDA-ARS, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCassia fistula (Indian laburnum)Present
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCassia grandis (pink shower)PresentIntroducedToruan-Purba, 1999
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCassia javanica (pink shower)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCassytha filiformis (love-vine)PresentGBIF, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCasuarina equisetifolia (casuarina)PresentNativeWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCatharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCedrela odorata (Spanish cedar)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCenchrus echinatus (southern sandbur)PresentHitchcock, 1971; Stone, 1976
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCentella asiatica (Asiatic pennywort)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCentratherum punctatum (lark daisy)PresentIntroducedFlann, 2009
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCeratophyllum demersum (coontail)PresentWaterhouse, 1993
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChamaecrista nictitans (sensitive partridge pea)PresentIntroducedILDIS, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChloris barbata (purpletop chloris)PresentHolm et al., 1979
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChromolaena odorata (Siam weed)WidespreadIntroducedYesAzmi, 2002
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass)Restricted distributionHolm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCinnamomum burmanni (padang cassia)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCinnamomum camphora (camphor laurel)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCleome rutidosperma (fringed spiderflower)WidespreadIntroducedYesTeng & Teh, 1990; Ismail et al., 1995; Elffers et al., 1964; Kers, 1986; Waterhouse & Mitchell, 1998
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCleome viscosa (Asian spiderflower)PresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClerodendrum chinense (Chinese glory bower)PresentIntroducedWaterhouse, 1993
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClidemia hirta (Koster's curse)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCoccinia grandis (scarlet-fruited ivy gourd)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013; PIER, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCocos nucifera (coconut)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaColocasia esculenta (taro)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaColubrina asiatica (latherleaf)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCombretum indicum (Rangoon creeper)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCommelina benghalensis (wandering jew)Restricted distributionWilson, 1981; Waterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCommelina diffusa (spreading dayflower)PresentWaterhouse, 1993
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConvolvulus arvensis (bindweed)Restricted distributionEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConyza sumatrensis (tall fleabane)PresentIntroducedItoh et al., 1992
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCordyline fruticosa (ti plant)WidespreadHinkle, 2007; Smithsonian, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCorymbia citriodora (lemon-scented gum)PresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCosmos caudatus (wild cosmos)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014; Sherff, 1932
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrassocephalum crepidioides (redflower ragleaf)PresentIntroducedTjitrosoedirdjo, 1991; USDA-ARS, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrotalaria retusa (rattleweed)PresentNativeILDIS, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCuphea carthagenensis (Colombian waxweed)PresentIntroducedKiew, 2008; GBIF, 2015; Forest Research Institute Malaysia, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCuscuta campestris (field dodder)PresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyanthillium cinereum (little ironweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCynara cardunculus (cardoon)PresentIntroducedGBIF, 2016
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass)WidespreadIntroducedYesHolm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus compressus (annual sedge)WidespreadWaterhouse, 1993; Ridley, 1925; Herbarium (DD)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus difformis (small-flowered nutsedge)WidespreadBarnes & Chan, 1990
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus imbricatus (shingle flatsedge)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus iria (rice flatsedge)PresentBarnes & Chan, 1990
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus meyenianus (Meyen's flatsedge)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus rotundus (purple nutsedge)PresentHolm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDactyloctenium aegyptium (crowfoot grass)PresentIntroducedWycherley & Mohd, 1974
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDalbergia sissooPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2007
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDelonix regia (flamboyant)PresentIntroducedILDIS, 2009
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDendrocalamus strictus (male bamboo)PresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDichanthium annulatum (Kleberg's bluestem)PresentNativeClayton et al., 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDichrostachys cinerea (sickle bush)PresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2005
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria ciliaris (southern crabgrass)PresentWaterhouse, 1993
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria longiflora (false couch grass)PresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria sanguinalis (large crabgrass)PresentIntroducedWaterhouse, 1993
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDioscorea alata (white yam)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDioscorea bulbifera (air potato)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEchinochloa colona (junglerice)PresentAzmi, 1988; Waterhouse, 1993; Barnes & Chan, 1990
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEchinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass)PresentIntroducedMoody, 1989; Holm et al., 1991; USDA-ARS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEclipta prostrata (eclipta)PresentHolm et al., 1979
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth)WidespreadIntroducedYesGopal, 1987; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElaeis guineensis (African oil palm)PresentFAO, 2009
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEleocharis dulcis (Chinese water chestnut)Restricted distributionMansor & Ahmad, 1986
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElephantopus mollis (elephant's foot)Present only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEleusine indica (goose grass)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElodea canadensis (Canadian pondweed)PresentIntroducedRevilla et al., 1991
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEmilia sonchifolia (red tasselflower)PresentWaterhouse, 1993; IRRI, 1989; Holm et al., 1997
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEpipremnum pinnatum (centipede tongavine)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErechtites valerianifolius (tropical burnweed)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErythrina poeppigiana (coral tree)Present
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEtlingera elatior (torch ginger)PresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEucalyptus camaldulensis (red gum)PresentIntroducedWAC, 2005; Orwa et al., 2009
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEucalyptus robusta (swamp mahogany)Present
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEugenia uniflora (Surinam cherry)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia heterophylla (wild poinsettia)PresentWaterhouse, 1993
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia hirta (garden spurge)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia tirucalli (euphorbia)Present
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFalcataria moluccana (batai wood)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus benghalensis (banyan)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus benjamina (weeping fig)PresentNativeCorner, 1967; Quattrocchi, 2012; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus elastica (rubber plant)PresentQuattrocchi, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus microcarpa (Indian laurel tree)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFimbristylis cymosa (tropical fimbry)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFimbristylis dichotoma (tall fringe rush)PresentHolm et al., 1991
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFimbristylis littoralis (lesser fimbristylis)PresentHolm et al., 1991
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFlacourtia indica (governor's plum)PresentOrwa et al., 2009; USDA-ARS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFlemingia strobilifera (wild hops)PresentNativeILDIS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGalinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier)PresentIntroducedYesHolm et al., 1979
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGliricidia sepium (mother of cocoa)PresentIntroducedILDIS, 2002; WAC, 2005
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGrevillea robusta (silky oak)PresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHaematoxylum campechianum (logwood)PresentIntroducedSeegeler, 1992
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHeliotropium indicum (Indian heliotrope)PresentWaterhouse, 1993
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHibiscus tiliaceus (coast cottonwood)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHiptage benghalensis (hiptage)PresentNativePIER, 2007
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHydrilla verticillata (hydrilla)WidespreadPieterse, 1981; Verkleij et al., 1983
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHygrophila polysperma (Indian swampweed)PresentNativeFNW Disseminules, 2007
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaImperata cylindrica (cogon grass)WidespreadNativeHolm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993; Garrity et al., 1996; Gilliland, 1971; McDonald & Chandler, 1994; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera hirsuta (hairy indigo)PresentNativePIER, 2013; Djarwaningsih, 1997
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera spicata (creeping indigo)PresentNativePuy et al., 1993; ILDIS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera suffruticosa (Anil indigo)PresentIntroducedProta4U, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera tinctoria (true indigo)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013; ILDIS, 2014; Bisby et al., 1994
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea aquatica (swamp morning-glory)PresentChin & Fong, 1978; Mackeen et al., 1997; Subramanyam, 1962
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIschaemum rugosum (saramollagrass)Restricted distributionGilliland et al., 1971; EPPO, 2014; Clayton et al., 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIschaemum timorense (centipede grass)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJatropha curcas (jatropha)PresentIntroducedCaius, 1986
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush)PresentIntroducedPadua et al., 1999
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJuncus effusus (common rush)PresentWu et al., 2000
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLagerstroemia indica (Indian crape myrtle)PresentNativeOrwa et al., 2009
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLantana camara (lantana)Restricted distributionIntroducedYesHolm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeersia hexandra (southern cut grass)PresentPyrah, 1969
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLemna perpusilla (duckweed)PresentMoody, 1989
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeonurus japonicus (honeyweed)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeptochloa chinensis (Chinese sprangletop)PresentWaterhouse, 1993; Ohwi, 1984
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeucaena diversifoliaPresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeucaena leucocephala (leucaena)PresentIntroducedYesHughes, 1998b; Hughes, 1998a; World Agroforestry Centre, 2002
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLimnocharis flava (yellow bur-head)PresentIntroducedYesMoody, 1989; Waterhouse & Mitchell, 1998; Holm et al., 1991
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLindernia crustacea (Malaysian false pimpernel)Present; USDA-ARS, 2015; Bakar, 2004
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLolium perenne (perennial ryegrass)PresentIntroducedeMonocot, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLudwigia hyssopifolia (water primrose)PresentNativeYesUSDA-ARS, 2012; Moody, 1989
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLudwigia octovalvis (primrose willow)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLudwigia peploides (water primrose)PresentGBIF, 2009
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMacaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree)PresentNativeGBIF, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMaesopsis eminii (umbrella tree)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMalvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMangifera indica (mango)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaManilkara zapota (sapodilla)Present
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMegathyrsus maximus (Guinea grass)PresentIntroducedYesPIER, 2013; Moody, 1989
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree)PresentIntroducedWorld Agroforetry Centre, 2002
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelastoma malabathricum (Banks melastoma)Restricted distributionWaterhouse, 1993; Turner et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelia azedarach (Chinaberry)PresentNativeWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelinis repens (natal redtop)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMerremia peltataPresentVan & Hoogland, 1953
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMerremia umbellata (hogvine)PresentVan & Ooststroom Hoogland, 1953; Barnes & Chan, 1990
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMicrostegium vimineum (Nepalese browntop)PresentNativeEPPO Executive Committee, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMikania micrantha (bitter vine)WidespreadIntroducedYesHolm et al., 1977; Waterhouse, 1993; Ismail, 2001; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMikania scandensAbsent, unreliable recordIntroducedMatsubayashi et al., 2007
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMimosa diplotricha (giant sensitive plant)Restricted distributionIntroducedYesHolm et al., 1977; Waterhouse & Norris, 1987; Parsons & Cuthbertson, 1992; Waterhouse, 1993; PIER, 2008; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMimosa pigra (catclaw mimosa)Restricted distributionIntroducedYesWaterhouse, 1993; Anwar, 2001; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMimosa pudica (sensitive plant)WidespreadIntroducedMoody, 1989; Waterhouse, 1993
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMomordica charantia (bitter gourd)PresentNativeScholz, 1988; Holm et al., 1997; USDA-ARS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMonochoria vaginalis (pickerel weed)PresentHolm et al., 1979
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMoringa oleifera (horse-radish tree)Present
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMucuna pruriens (velvet bean)PresentNativeLock & Heald, 1994; USDA-ARS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMurdannia nudiflora (doveweed)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMyriophyllum aquaticum (parrot's feather)PresentIntroducedOrchard, 1981; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNelsonia canescens (blue pussyleaf)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNeonotonia wightii (perennial soybean)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNeyraudia reynaudiana (burma reed)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; Bor, 1960
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNypa fruticans (nipa palm)PresentNative
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOcimum tenuiflorum (holy basil)Present
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOryza rufipogon (wild rice)PresentMoody, 1989
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOxalis corniculata (creeping woodsorrel)PresentIntroducedYesHolm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaederia foetida (skunkvine)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPanicum repens (torpedo grass)WidespreadIntroducedHolm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaParthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed)PresentIntroducedYesRezaul Karim, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum conjugatum (sour paspalum)WidespreadHolm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum distichum (knotgrass)PresentIntroducedHäfliger & Scholz, 1980; Waterhouse, 1993
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum scrobiculatum (ricegrass paspalum)Restricted distributionNativeYesWaterhouse, 1993; Holm et al., 1991; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower)WidespreadHolm et al., 1991; Waterhouse, 1993; Abu, 1992; Homl et al., 1997
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPeltophorum pterocarpum (copperpod)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPennisetum pedicellatum (deenanath grass)Restricted distributionIntroducedYesHolm et al., 1977; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPennisetum polystachion (mission grass)PresentIntroducedYesBakar et al., 1990
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPennisetum purpureum (elephant grass)PresentWaterhouse, 1993
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPersicaria perfoliata (mile-a-minute weed)PresentNativeeFloras, 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhaius tankervilleae (nun’s-hood orchid)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; eMonocot, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhragmites australis (common reed)PresentHolm et al., 1991
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhyllanthus urinaria (leafflower)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhysalis angulata (cutleaf groundcherry)PresentIntroducedWaterhouse, 1993
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhysalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry)PresentIntroducedMorton, 1987
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPimenta dioica (allspice)PresentFAO, 2009
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPinus caribaea (Caribbean pine)Present
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPinus oocarpa (ocote pine)Present
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPiper aduncum (spiked pepper)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPistia stratiotes (water lettuce)PresentYesWaterhouse, 1993; PIER, 2003; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPithecellobium dulce (Manila tamarind)PresentIntroduced
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlantago major (broad-leaved plantain)PresentHolm et al., 1979
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlectranthus scutellarioides (coleus)PresentFlora Mesoamericana, 2014; Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPluchea indica (Indian camphorweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPoa annua (annual meadowgrass)PresentHolm et al., 1991
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolygonum barbatum (knot grass)PresentMoody, 1989
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolygonum hydropiper (marsh pepper)PresentHolm et al., 1997
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPortulaca oleracea (purslane)PresentWaterhouse, 1993
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPortulaca pilosa (kiss-me-quick)PresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPsidium cattleianum (strawberry guava)PresentIntroducedMorton, 1987; Diong, 1998
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPsidium guajava (guava)PresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002; FAO, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPueraria montana var. lobata (kudzu)PresentEPPO, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRhizophora mangle (red mangrove)Unconfirmed recordCAB Abstracts
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRhodomyrtus tomentosa (Downy rose-myrtle)WidespreadNativeCsurhes & Hankamer, 2011
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRicinus communis (castor bean)WidespreadIntroduced
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRottboellia cochinchinensis (itch grass)Restricted distributionNativeWaterhouse, 1993; USDA-ARS, 2008; EPPO, 2014; Reed et al., 1977
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRubus niveus (Mysore raspberry)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRubus rosifolius (roseleaf raspberry)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSaccharum spontaneum (wild sugarcane)PresentHolm et al., 1997; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSacciolepis indica (glen woodgrass)PresentNativePIER, 2010
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSamanea saman (rain tree)PresentIntroducedILDIS, 2002
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSanchezia speciosa (shrubby whitevein)PresentIntroducedPaydar et al., 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSansevieria trifasciata (mother-in-law’s tongue)PresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaScaevola taccada (beach naupaka)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna bacillaris (whitebark senna)PresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna multijuga (November shower)PresentILDIS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna obtusifolia (sicklepod)PresentWaterhouse, 1993; Barnes & Chan, 1990
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna occidentalis (coffee senna)PresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna septemtrionalis (smooth senna)PresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna siamea (yellow cassia)PresentIntroducedILDIS, 2007
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna spectabilis (whitebark senna)PresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna surattensis (golden senna)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014; ILDIS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSesbania sesban (sesban)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSetaria palmifolia (palm grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSetaria parviflora (knotroot foxtail)PresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSida acuta (sida)WidespreadIntroducedYesWaterhouse, 1993; Barnes & Chan, 1990
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum erianthum (potato tree)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum mammosum (nipplefruit nightshade)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum nigrum (black nightshade)Present
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum torvum (turkey berry)Restricted distributionNarikawa et al., 1988; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpathodea campanulata (African tulip tree)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpathoglottis plicata (Philippine ground orchid)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSphenoclea zeylanica (wedgewort)PresentMoody, 1989
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachytarpheta cayennensis (blue snakeweed)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachytarpheta jamaicensis (Jamaica vervain)PresentHolm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachytarpheta urticifolia (rattail)Absent, unreliable recordMoldenke, 1980
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStriga asiatica (witch weed)PresentNativeHolm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSynedrella nodiflora (synedrella)PresentTasrif et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSyngonium podophyllum (arrowhead vine)PresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2012
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSyzygium cumini (black plum)PresentIntroducedMorton, 1987
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSyzygium jambos (rose apple)PresentNativeMorton, 1987
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTephrosia candida (white tephrosia)PresentILDIS, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTerminalia catappa (Singapore almond)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThemeda arguens (Christmas grass)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThespesia populnea (portia tree)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTibouchina urvilleana (princessflower)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTithonia diversifolia (Tithonia)WidespreadIntroducedYesUSDA-ARS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaToona ciliata (toon)PresentNativeHua & Edmonds, 2008
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTridax procumbens (coat buttons)Restricted distributionBarnes & Chan, 1990; EPPO, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTriphasia trifolia (limeberry)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTurnera ulmifolia (West Indian holly)PresentIntroducedYesSteenis CGJJvan 1948-1954
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTypha angustifolia (lesser bulrush)PresentMoody, 1989; Waterhouse, 1993
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTypha latifolia (broadleaf cattail)PresentIntroducedGlobal Invasive Species Database, 2006
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrena lobata (caesar weed)PresentHolm et al., 1979
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrena sinuata (bur mallow)PresentNativeValkenburg & Bunyapraphatsara, 2001
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa decumbens (signal grass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa distachya (signal grass)PresentNativeSchultze-Kraft, 1992
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa mutica (para grass)PresentIntroducedYesHolm et al., 1977
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUtricularia gibbaPresentNativeZhenyu & Cheek, 2011
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVernicia fordii (tung-oil tree)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVigna marina (beach bean)PresentNativeILDIS, 2014
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVitex rotundifolia (beach vitex)Present, see datasheet for details
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaXanthosoma sagittifolium (elephant ear)PresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaXyris complanata (yellow-eyed grass)PresentNativeGBIF, 2015
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaZingiber montanum (cassumunar ginger)PresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaZingiber zerumbet (shampoo ginger)PresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaZiziphus mauritiana (jujube)PresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre, 2002
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaAlexandrium minutumLocalisedUsup et al., 2002
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBabesia caballiPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBabesia equiPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBabesia gibsoniPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaGymnodinium catenatumPresentAnton & Mohamad-Noor, 1996
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaPlasmodium relictumPresentNativeLaird, 1998
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaToxoplasma gondiiPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTritrichomonas foetusSee datasheet for status
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTrypanosoma equiperdumSee datasheet for status
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTrypanosoma evansiPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
VirusAfrican horse sickness virusSee datasheet for status
VirusAfrican swine fever virusSee datasheet for status
Virusalcelaphine herpesvirus 1Present, see datasheet for details
VirusArterivirusPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Virusavian infectious bronchitis virusSee datasheet for status
VirusAvipoxvirusPresentIderis & Ibrahim, 1986; Reed & Schrader, 1989; Karpinski & Clubb, 1986
VirusBanana bunchy top virus (bunchy top of banana)Restricted distributionYesEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2013
VirusBanana streak diseasePresentNativeYesDiekmann & Putter, 1996
Virusbluetongue virusPresent, see datasheet for details
Virusbovine herpesvirus 1See datasheet for status
Virusbovine leukemia virusSee datasheet for status
Virusbovine viral diarrhea virusSee datasheet for status
Viruscaprine arthritis encephalitis virusSee datasheet for status
Virusclassical swine fever virusSee datasheet for status
VirusCoconut cadang-cadang viroid (cadang cadang disease)Absent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
VirusCowpea aphid-borne mosaic virusPresentBrunt et al., 1990; Dahal & Albrechtsen, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2010
Virusduck hepatitis A virusSee datasheet for status
Virusequine arteritis virusSee datasheet for status
Virusequine infectious anaemia virusSee datasheet for status
Virusequine influenzavirusSee datasheet for status
Virusextra small virusPresentTayebeh et al., 2012
Virusfoot-and-mouth disease virusSee datasheet for status
VirusGallid herpesvirus 2Present, see datasheet for details
Virusinfectious bursal disease virusPresent, see datasheet for details
Virusinfectious haematopoietic necrosis virusSee datasheet for status
Virusinfluenza A virusSee datasheet for status
VirusJapanese encephalitis virusPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Viruslumpy skin disease virusSee datasheet for status
VirusMacrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirusPresentTayebeh Azam Saedi et al., 2012
Virusmyxoma virusSee datasheet for status
VirusNairobi sheep disease virusSee datasheet for status
VirusNipah virusPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
VirusPapaya ringspot virusPresentWahab, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Viruspeste des petits ruminants virusSee datasheet for status
Virusrabbit hemorrhagic disease virusSee datasheet for status
Virusrabies virusSee datasheet for status
VirusRift Valley fever virusSee datasheet for status
Virusrinderpest virusSee datasheet for status
Virusspring viraemia of carp virusSee datasheet for status
VirusSugarcane mosaic virus (mosaic of abaca)PresentEPPO, 2014
VirusSuid herpesvirus 1PresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Virusswine vesicular disease virusSee datasheet for status
VirusTaura syndrome virusSee datasheet for status
VirusVenezuelan equine encephalitis virusSee datasheet for status
Virusvesicular stomatitis virusSee datasheet for status
Virusviral hemorrhagic septicaemia virusSee datasheet for status
Virusvisna/maedi virusSee datasheet for status

List of Species CSV Output

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Generate a spreadsheet of the List of Species which also includes records from basic datasheets.

Basic datasheets include data mined from various sources (including the CAB Abstracts database and selected invasive species databases). Further confirmation of distribution status should be sought before use.

Download CSV file

List of Animal Diseases

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The table lists the animal diseases recorded in the Compendium for this region (from the full disease datasheets). For further information, please follow the link to the datasheet.

DiseaseDistributionOriginInvasiveReferences
acarapisosis of honey beesDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
African horse sicknessDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
African swine feverDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
American foulbrood of honey beesDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
anaplasmosisSee datasheet for status
anthraxDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Aujeszky's diseaseDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
avian chlamydiosisDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
avian infectious bronchitisPresentOIE, 2009; Babjee, 1985; Opitz et al., 1979; Anon., 1985
avian influenzaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma gallisepticum)Disease not reportedOIE, 2009
avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma synoviae)Disease not reportedOIE, 2009
avipoxPresentReed & Schrader, 1989; Ideris & Ibrahim, 1986; Karpinski & Clubb, 1986
babesiosisPresentOIE, 2009
bluetongueDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Bothriocephalus acheilognathi infectionPresentIntroducedFernando & Furtado, 1964
bovine anaplasmosisPresentOIE, 2009
bovine genital campylobacteriosisDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
bovine herpesvirus 1 infectionsDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
bovine spongiform encephalopathyDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
bovine tuberculosisDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
bovine venereal trichomonosisSee datasheet for status
bovine viral diarrhoeaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
brucellosis (Brucella abortus)PresentOIE, 2009
brucellosis (Brucella melitensis)PresentOIE, 2009
brucellosis (Brucella ovis)Disease not reportedOIE, 2009
brucellosis (Brucella suis)Disease not reportedOIE, 2009
Burkholderia pseudomallei infectionsPresentDance, 1991
camelpoxDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
caprine arthritis encephalitisDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Chrysomya bezziana infestationPresentNativeYesWardhana et al., 2012b; Norris & Murray, 1964
ChytridiomycosisPresent, see datasheet for details
classical swine feverPresentOIE, 2009
contagious agalactiaSee datasheet for status
contagious bovine pleuropneumoniaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
contagious caprine pleuropneumoniaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
contagious equine metritisDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
crayfish plagueDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic feverDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
dermatophilosisSee datasheet for status
dourineDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
duck virus hepatitisDisease not reportedOIE, 2009; Office International des Epizooties1999
enzootic abortion of ewesDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
enzootic bovine leukosisDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
epizootic haematopoietic necrosisDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
epizootic ulcerative syndromeDisease not reportedOIE, 2009;
Equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern)Disease never reportedOIE, 2009
equine infectious anaemiaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
equine influenzaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
equine piroplasmosisDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
equine rhinopneumonitisDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
equine viral arteritisDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
European foulbroodRestricted distributionOIE, 2009
fibropapillomatosis of sea turtlesPresentHerbst, 1994
foot-and-mouth disease in pigsSee datasheet for status
foot-and-mouth disease in ruminantsRestricted distributionOIE, 2009
fowl typhoidDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
glandersDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Gyrodactylus salaris infectionDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
haemorrhagic septicaemiaSee datasheet for status
heartwaterDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
infectious bursal diseasePresentOIE, 2009; van den Berg, 2000
infectious haematopoietic necrosisDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosisPresentOIE, 2009
infectious laryngotracheitisDisease not reportedOIE, 2009; OIE, 2000a
infectious salmon anaemiaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Japanese encephalitisDisease not reportedOIE, 2009; Bendell, 1970; Simpson et al., 1976
koi herpesvirus diseasePresentOIE, 2009; Gilad et al., 2003; Haenen et al., 2004
leishmaniosisDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
leptospirosisPresentOIE, 2009
lumpy skin diseaseDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
malignant catarrhal feverPresent, see datasheet for details
Marek's diseasePresentOIE, 2009
myxomatosisDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Nairobi sheep diseaseDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Newcastle diseasePresentOIE, 2009
Nipah virus infectionDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
paratuberculosisPresentOIE, 2009; OIE
peste des petits ruminantsDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Plasmodium relictum infectionPresentNativeLaird, 1998
porcine enterovirus infectionsDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
porcine reproductive and respiratory syndromeDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
pullorum diseasePresentOIE, 2009
Q feverSee datasheet for status
rabbit haemorrhagic diseaseDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
rabiesDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
red sea bream iridoviral diseasePresentOIE, 2009
Rift Valley feverDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
rinderpestDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
scrapieDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
sheep and goat poxDisease not reportedOIE, 2009; Kuppuswamy, 1936
small hive beetle infestationDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
spring viraemia of carpDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
surraDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
swine vesicular diseaseSee datasheet for status
Taura syndromeDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Theileria orientalis/Theileria buffeli infectionsPresent, see datasheet for details
theileriosisPresentOIE, 2009
toxoplasmosisSee datasheet for status
transmissible gastroenteritis and porcine respiratory coronovirus infectionDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
TrichinellaSee datasheet for status
Tropilaelaps infestation of honey beesPresentKoeniger et al., 2002; OIE, 2009
trypanosomosisDisease not reportedOIE, 2009; Arunasalam et al., 1995; Cheah et al., 1999
tuberculosisSee datasheet for status
tularaemiaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
turkey rhinotracheitisDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
varroosis of honey beesPresentOIE, 2009
Venezuelan equine encephalitisDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
vesicular stomatitisDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
viral haemorrhagic septicaemiaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
visna/maediDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
West Nile feverDisease never reportedOIE, 2009; Hubalek & Halouzka, 1999
white spot diseasePresentOIE, 2009
white tail diseasePresentTayebeh et al., 2012
yellow head diseaseDisease never reportedOIE, 2009

List of Animal Diseases CSV Output

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Generate a spreadsheet of the List of Animal Diseases which also includes records from basic datasheets.

Basic datasheets include data mined from various sources (including the CAB Abstracts database). Further confirmation of distribution status should be sought before use.

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Agricultural Production

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2011-2007 | 2006-2002
crop20112010200920082007
ArecanutsArea Harvested692Im6806436361300F
ArecanutsProduction Quantity646Im65061820352200F
ArecanutsYield9335.26Fc9558.82Fc9611.2Fc31996.9Fc16923.1Fc
BananasArea Harvested3130031144274542265025576
BananasProduction Quantity334302332639279762272331260911
BananasYield106806Fc106807Fc101902Fc120234Fc102014Fc
Cabbages and other brassicasArea Harvested49424917140617501700
Cabbages and other brassicasProduction Quantity144280143562608947310065800
Cabbages and other brassicasYield291947Fc291971Fc433101Fc417714Fc387059Fc
Cashew nuts, with shellArea Harvested7164Im7295Im7292Im7183Im7000*
Cashew nuts, with shellProduction Quantity15118Im13543Im12830Im12935Im13000*
Cashew nuts, with shellYield21102.7Fc18564.8Fc17594.6Fc18007.8Fc18571.4Fc
CassavaArea Harvested29072769307523162396
CassavaProduction Quantity3904737187685083520938711
CassavaYield134321Fc134298Fc222790Fc152025Fc161565Fc
Cereals (Rice Milled Eqv + (Total)Area Harvested692707A 686484A 682104A 662917A 679848A
Cereals (Rice Milled Eqv + (Total)Production Quantity1827600A 1691640A 1711260A 1602410A 1616200A
Cereals (Rice Milled Eqv + (Total)Seed20038.8A 20038.8A 19860.7A 19741.5A 19189.9A
Cereals (Rice Milled Eqv + (Total)Yield26383.5Fc24642.1Fc25088Fc24172.1Fc23773Fc
Cereals,Total + (Total)Area Harvested692707A 686484A 682104A 662917A 679848A
Cereals,Total + (Total)Production Quantity2715080A 2512430A 2547440A 2385960A 2407080A
Cereals,Total + (Total)Seed20038.8A 20038.8A 19860.7A 19741.5A 19189.9A
Cereals,Total + (Total)Yield39195.3Fc36598.6Fc37346.7Fc35991.8Fc35406.1Fc
Chillies and peppers, dryArea Harvested2098Im2018Im2279Im2208Im2135Im
Chillies and peppers, dryProduction Quantity2170Im2087Im2589Im2615Im2270Im
Chillies and peppers, dryYield10343.2Fc10341.9Fc11360.3Fc11843.3Fc10632.3Fc
Chillies and peppers, greenArea Harvested29862971259427122500F
Chillies and peppers, greenProduction Quantity2968629538348233079629000F
Chillies and peppers, greenYield99417.3Fc99421.1Fc134244Fc113555Fc116000Fc
Citrus fruit, nesArea Harvested4473445144404000F 3500F
Citrus fruit, nesProduction Quantity21114210092058618400F 16000F
Citrus fruit, nesYield47203.2Fc47200.6Fc46364.9Fc46000Fc45714.3Fc
Citrus Fruit,Total + (Total)Area Harvested9435A 9361A 9338A 8738A 8803A
Citrus Fruit,Total + (Total)Production Quantity88691A 88095A 84652A 72592A 76926A
Citrus Fruit,Total + (Total)Yield94002.1Fc94108.5Fc90653.2Fc83076.2Fc87386.1Fc
ClovesArea Harvested993Im955Im1078Im1043Im1009Im
ClovesProduction Quantity210Im202Im250Im252Im219Im
ClovesYield2114.8Fc2115.18Fc2319.11Fc2416.11Fc2170.47Fc
Coarse Grain, Total + (Total)Area Harvested9030A 8600A 7176A 6315A 6606A
Coarse Grain, Total + (Total)Production Quantity49983A 47602A 36396A 32959A 32075A
Coarse Grain, Total + (Total)Seed212.21A 212.21A 202.1A 168.64A 148.4A
Coarse Grain, Total + (Total)Yield55352.2Fc55351.2Fc50719.1Fc52191.6Fc48554.3Fc
Cocoa beansArea Harvested21722Im21389Im205612062228209
Cocoa beansProduction Quantity15975Im18929Im181522795535180
Cocoa beansYield7354.3Fc8849.88Fc8828.36Fc13555.9Fc12471.2Fc
CoconutsArea Harvested108828105659100362111925119701
CoconutsProduction Quantity577647550140459640555120530040
CoconutsYield53078.9Fc52067.5Fc45798.2Fc49597.5Fc44280.3Fc
Coffee, greenArea Harvested20442Im20050Im20000F 26000F 28000F
Coffee, greenProduction Quantity1647815768163322306121213
Coffee, greenYield8060.86Fc7864.34Fc8166Fc8869.62Fc7576.07Fc
CoirProduction Quantity20000F 20000F 20000F 20600F 23400F
Cucumbers and gherkinsArea Harvested38553836378028563050
Cucumbers and gherkinsProduction Quantity6102360719762985392256400
Cucumbers and gherkinsYield158296Fc158287Fc201847Fc188803Fc184918Fc
Fibre Crops Primary + (Total)Area HarvestedA A A A A
Fibre Crops Primary + (Total)Production QuantityA A A A A
Fibre Crops Primary + (Total)Yield
Fruit excl Melons,Total + (Total)Area Harvested104319A 103763A 104435A 83591A 87583A
Fruit excl Melons,Total + (Total)Production Quantity1079450A 1073890A 1029760A 1000890A 922636A
Fruit excl Melons,Total + (Total)Yield103475Fc103494Fc98602.5Fc119737Fc105344Fc
Fruit Fresh NesArea Harvested12985Im12916Im13000F 12800F 14394Im
Fruit Fresh NesProduction Quantity104301Im103764Im99500F 98000F 89382Im
Fruit Fresh NesYield80324.2Fc80337.6Fc76538.5Fc76562.5Fc62096.7Fc
Fruit, tropical fresh nesArea Harvested17136Im17045Im171551834219200F
Fruit, tropical fresh nesProduction Quantity99716Im99202Im95125103732115000F
Fruit, tropical fresh nesYield58190.9Fc58200.1Fc55450.3Fc56554.4Fc59895.8Fc
GingerArea Harvested1103106111981089880
GingerProduction Quantity8670833794021054410150
GingerYield78603.8Fc78576.8Fc78480.8Fc96822.8Fc115341Fc
Grapefruit (inc. pomelos)Area Harvested15791571161118301822
Grapefruit (inc. pomelos)Production Quantity98309781851584649261
Grapefruit (inc. pomelos)Yield62254.6Fc62259.7Fc52855.4Fc46251.4Fc50828.8Fc
Groundnuts, with shellArea Harvested198189190176224
Groundnuts, with shellProduction Quantity607578657706823
Groundnuts, with shellSeed15.84Fc15.84Fc15.12Fc15.2Fc14.08Fc
Groundnuts, with shellYield30656.6Fc30582Fc34578.9Fc40113.6Fc36741.1Fc
Lemons and limesArea Harvested81978972011091518
Lemons and limesProduction Quantity46364468488576998676
Lemons and limesYield56605.6Fc56628.6Fc67847.2Fc69422.9Fc57154.2Fc
MaizeArea Harvested90308600717663156606
MaizeProduction Quantity4998347602363963295932075
MaizeSeed212.21Fc212.21Fc202.1Fc168.64Fc148.4Fc
MaizeYield55352.2Fc55351.2Fc50719.1Fc52191.6Fc48554.3Fc
Mangoes, mangosteens, guavasArea Harvested15249151731804954535640
Mangoes, mangosteens, guavasProduction Quantity7477274400672502357327270
Mangoes, mangosteens, guavasYield49034Fc49034.5Fc37259.7Fc43229.4Fc48351.1Fc
Manila Fibre (Abaca)Area Harvested
Manila Fibre (Abaca)Production Quantity
Manila Fibre (Abaca)Yield
Natural rubberArea Harvested1117390Im1081950Im105800012470001248000
Natural rubberProduction Quantity996673Im899001Im85701910724001199600
Natural rubberYield8919.65Fc8309.08Fc8100.37Fc8599.84Fc9612.18Fc
Nutmeg, mace and cardamomsArea Harvested1795Im1727Im1950F 1680F 710F
Nutmeg, mace and cardamomsProduction Quantity6135891672730310
Nutmeg, mace and cardamomsYield3415.04Fc3410.54Fc8574.36Fc4345.24Fc4366.2Fc
Oil palm fruitArea Harvested4010000F 4010000F 4010000* 3900000* 3741000*
Oil palm fruitProduction Quantity87825000F 87825000F 87825000F 88672000F 79100000F
Oil palm fruitYield219015Fc219015Fc219015Fc227364Fc211441Fc
Oilcakes Equivalent + (Total)Area Harvested4263230A 4255850A 4239940A 4161190A 4008340A
Oilcakes Equivalent + (Total)Production Quantity2385380A 2378070A 2461600A 2524590A 2264450A
Oilcakes Equivalent + (Total)Seed6.02A 6.02A 5.75A 5.78A 5.35A
Oilcakes Equivalent + (Total)Yield5595.25Fc5587.77Fc5805.75Fc6066.98Fc5649.35Fc
Oilcrops Primary + (Total)Area Harvested4263230A 4255850A 4239940A 4161190A 4008340A
Oilcrops Primary + (Total)Production Quantity21015100A 19090000A 19737900A 19962100A 17823100A
Oilcrops Primary + (Total)Seed4.75A 4.75A 4.54A 4.56A 4.22A
Oilcrops Primary + (Total)Yield49294Fc44855.9Fc46552.4Fc47972.2Fc44465.1Fc
Oilseeds, NesArea Harvested144203Im140000F 129388Im149089Im147418Im
Oilseeds, NesProduction Quantity178500Im170000F 137503Im166447Im152159Im
Oilseeds, NesYield12378.4Fc12142.9Fc10627.2Fc11164.3Fc10321.6Fc
OkraArea Harvested2023Im2013Im170215271450F
OkraProduction Quantity35757Im35579Im257391785815000F
OkraYield176752Fc176746Fc151228Fc116948Fc103448Fc
OrangesArea Harvested2564Im2550Im2567Im1799Im1963Im
OrangesProduction Quantity53111Im52837Im50666Im38029Im42989Im
OrangesYield207141Fc207204Fc197374Fc211390Fc218996Fc
Palm kernelsProduction Quantity4292000F 4292000* 4504000* 4577000* 4097000*
Palm oilProduction Quantity18912000* 16993000* 175649001773440015823700
PapayasArea Harvested26812668364823172190
PapayasProduction Quantity4492844704458124599336937
PapayasYield167579Fc167556Fc125581Fc198502Fc168662Fc
Pepper (Piper spp.)Area Harvested12529Im12052Im136081348713023
Pepper (Piper spp.)Production Quantity19456Im18708Im232102221820145
Pepper (Piper spp.)Yield15528.8Fc15522.7Fc17056.1Fc16473.6Fc15468.8Fc
PineapplesArea Harvested1553315456157911329111780
PineapplesProduction Quantity332736331081357654384673316210
PineapplesYield214212Fc214209Fc226492Fc289424Fc268430Fc
Pumpkins, squash and gourdsArea Harvested15161508752599442
Pumpkins, squash and gourdsProduction Quantity21200210951118548585446
Pumpkins, squash and gourdsYield139842Fc139887Fc148737Fc81101.8Fc123213Fc
Rice, paddyArea Harvested683677677884674928656602673242
Rice, paddyProduction Quantity26651002464830251104023530002375000
Rice, paddySeed19826.6Fc19826.6Fc19658.6Fc19572.9Fc19041.5Fc
Rice, paddyYield38981.9Fc36360.7Fc37204.6Fc35836Fc35277.1Fc
Roots and Tubers, nesArea Harvested365348656700F 670F
Roots and Tubers, nesProduction Quantity3031288763666500F 6450F
Roots and Tubers, nesYield83041.1Fc82959.8Fc97042.7Fc92857.1Fc96268.7Fc
Roots and Tubers,Total + (Total)Area Harvested5544A 5281A 5040A 4325A 4887A
Roots and Tubers,Total + (Total)Production Quantity66285A 63128A 88369A 59937A 74798A
Roots and Tubers,Total + (Total)Seed2044.8A 2044.8A 1947.6A 1178.1A 1178.1A
Roots and Tubers,Total + (Total)Yield119562Fc119538Fc175335Fc138583Fc153055Fc
SoybeansArea Harvested
SoybeansProduction Quantity
SoybeansSeed
SoybeansYield
Spices, nesArea Harvested74Im71Im8040
Spices, nesProduction Quantity764Im735Im912340
Spices, nesYield103243Fc103521Fc114000Fc85000Fc
Sugar caneArea Harvested13000F 13000F 15000F 1434015203
Sugar caneProduction Quantity800000F 800000F 850000F 850000F 950000F
Sugar caneYield615385Fc615385Fc566667Fc592748Fc624877Fc
Sweet potatoesArea Harvested22722164130913091821
Sweet potatoesProduction Quantity2420723054134951822829637
Sweet potatoesSeed2044.8Fc2044.8Fc1947.6Fc1178.1Fc1178.1Fc
Sweet potatoesYield106545Fc106534Fc103094Fc139251Fc162751Fc
TeaArea Harvested25332459151919902780
TeaProduction Quantity2062619738722395485540
TeaYield81429.1Fc80268.4Fc47551Fc47979.9Fc19928.1Fc
Tobacco, unmanufacturedArea Harvested9360Im9000F 820777207726
Tobacco, unmanufacturedProduction Quantity7425Im7200F 247362786453
Tobacco, unmanufacturedYield7932.69Fc8000Fc3013.28Fc8132.12Fc8352.32Fc
TomatoesArea Harvested13541347111410391110
TomatoesProduction Quantity134338133670299022675235638
TomatoesYield992157Fc992353Fc268420Fc257478Fc321063Fc
Treenuts,Total + (Total)Area Harvested7164A 7295A 7292A 7183A 7000A
Treenuts,Total + (Total)Production Quantity15118A 13543A 12830A 12935A 13000A
Treenuts,Total + (Total)Yield21102.7Fc18564.8Fc17594.6Fc18007.8Fc18571.4Fc
Vegetables fresh nesArea Harvested27080Im26944Im22784Im16475Im16519Im
Vegetables fresh nesProduction Quantity550134Im547397Im396010Im290359Im307078Im
Vegetables fresh nesYield203151Fc203161Fc173811Fc176242Fc185894Fc
Vegetables Primary + (Total)Area Harvested58244A 57952A 49004A 37138A 36012A
Vegetables Primary + (Total)Production Quantity1213490A 1207450A 873522A 717711A 668778A
Vegetables Primary + (Total)Yield208346Fc208354Fc178255Fc193255Fc185710Fc
Vegetables&Melons, Total + (Total)Area Harvested58244A 57952A 49004A 37138A 36012A
Vegetables&Melons, Total + (Total)Production Quantity1213490A 1207450A 873522A 717711A 668778A
Vegetables&Melons, Total + (Total)Yield208346Fc208354Fc178255Fc193255Fc185710Fc
WatermelonsArea Harvested144881441614872101809241
WatermelonsProduction Quantity237072235893238671220066154416
WatermelonsYield163633Fc163633Fc160483Fc216175Fc167099Fc
Agricultural Production: MT
* = Unofficial figure | A = Aggregate, may include official, semi-official or estimated data | F = FAO estimate | Fc = Calculated data | Im = FAO data based on imputation methodology | M = Data not available | P = Provisional official data

2011-2007 | 2006-2002
crop20062005200420032002
ArecanutsArea Harvested1800F 923Im873Im878Im800F
ArecanutsProduction Quantity3000F 1614Im1466Im1440Im1300F
ArecanutsYield16666.7Fc17486.5Fc16792.7Fc16400.9Fc16250Fc
BananasArea Harvested25000F 30000F 30000F 26000F 24342
BananasProduction Quantity380000F 450000F 510000F 530000F 500000F
BananasYield152000Fc150000Fc170000Fc203846Fc205406Fc
Cabbages and other brassicasArea Harvested16551800F 1800F 1500F 1092
Cabbages and other brassicasProduction Quantity4595735000F 353772898223970
Cabbages and other brassicasYield277686Fc194444Fc196539Fc193213Fc219505Fc
Cashew nuts, with shellArea Harvested14423Im13745Im13152Im12960Im12761Im
Cashew nuts, with shellProduction Quantity38508Im35086Im32011Im27282Im23646Im
Cashew nuts, with shellYield26699Fc25526.4Fc24339.3Fc21050.9Fc18529.9Fc
CassavaArea Harvested3000F 3500F 4000F 4600F 5800F
CassavaProduction Quantity70000F 78000F 81000F 93000F 100000F
CassavaYield233333Fc222857Fc202500Fc202174Fc172414Fc
Cereals (Rice Milled Eqv + (Total)Area Harvested670000A 701200A 704700A 695800A 701500A
Cereals (Rice Milled Eqv + (Total)Production Quantity1538730A 1618440A 1582090A 1577420A 1535630A
Cereals (Rice Milled Eqv + (Total)Seed19679.2A 19292.5A 20197.3A 20304.3A 20046.2A
Cereals (Rice Milled Eqv + (Total)Yield22966.1Fc23081Fc22450.5Fc22670.6Fc21890.7Fc
Cereals,Total + (Total)Area Harvested670000A 701200A 704700A 695800A 701500A
Cereals,Total + (Total)Production Quantity2267000A 2389000A 2336000A 2329000A 2267350A
Cereals,Total + (Total)Seed19679.2A 19292.5A 20197.3A 20304.3A 20046.2A
Cereals,Total + (Total)Yield33835.8Fc34070.2Fc33148.9Fc33472.3Fc32321.5Fc
Chillies and peppers, dryArea Harvested1996Im2205Im2221Im2270Im2237Im
Chillies and peppers, dryProduction Quantity2181Im2170Im2284Im2398Im2740Im
Chillies and peppers, dryYield10926.9Fc9841.27Fc10283.7Fc10563.9Fc12248.5Fc
Chillies and peppers, greenArea Harvested2500F 2500F 2400F 2400F 2400F
Chillies and peppers, greenProduction Quantity29000F 29000F 27000F 27000F 27000F
Chillies and peppers, greenYield116000Fc116000Fc112500Fc112500Fc112500Fc
Citrus fruit, nesArea Harvested2800F 2000F 1113Im1109Im1100F
Citrus fruit, nesProduction Quantity13500F 10000F 5934Im5997Im6000F
Citrus fruit, nesYield48214.3Fc50000Fc53315.4Fc54075.7Fc54545.4Fc
Citrus Fruit,Total + (Total)Area Harvested7138A 6225A 5252A 4812A 4812A
Citrus Fruit,Total + (Total)Production Quantity70308A 60974A 54930A 45273A 37830A
Citrus Fruit,Total + (Total)Yield98498.2Fc97950.2Fc104589Fc94083.5Fc78616Fc
ClovesArea Harvested943Im1042Im1050Im1073Im1057Im
ClovesProduction Quantity210Im209Im220Im231Im264Im
ClovesYield2226.94Fc2005.76Fc2095.24Fc2152.84Fc2497.63Fc
Coarse Grain, Total + (Total)Area Harvested25000A 25000A 24000A 24000A 23000A
Coarse Grain, Total + (Total)Production Quantity80000A 75000A 72000A 72000A 70000A
Coarse Grain, Total + (Total)Seed155.24A 587.5A 587.5A 564A 564A
Coarse Grain, Total + (Total)Yield32000Fc30000Fc30000Fc30000Fc30434.8Fc
Cocoa beansArea Harvested3132633398416124480048035
Cocoa beansProduction Quantity3193727964334003620047661
Cocoa beansYield10195Fc8372.96Fc8026.53Fc8080.36Fc9922.14Fc
CoconutsArea Harvested115000* 175000* 178000* 179000* 180000*
CoconutsProduction Quantity512700571000* 624000* 580000* 712000*
CoconutsYield44582.6Fc32628.6Fc35056.2Fc32402.2Fc39555.6Fc
Coffee, greenArea Harvested43300F 53000F 52000F 53000F 52000F
Coffee, greenProduction Quantity3277940000* 39200* 40000* 39200*
Coffee, greenYield7570.21Fc7547.17Fc7538.46Fc7547.17Fc7538.46Fc
CoirProduction Quantity23400F 23400F 25700F 23900F 28500F
Cucumbers and gherkinsArea Harvested30112779Im2640Im2728Im2503Im
Cucumbers and gherkinsProduction Quantity5553978635Im68163Im60108Im45000F
Cucumbers and gherkinsYield184454Fc282962Fc258193Fc220337Fc179784Fc
Fibre Crops Primary + (Total)Area HarvestedA A A A A
Fibre Crops Primary + (Total)Production QuantityA A A A A
Fibre Crops Primary + (Total)Yield
Fruit excl Melons,Total + (Total)Area Harvested93277A 99694A 98913A 98112A 88618A
Fruit excl Melons,Total + (Total)Production Quantity1077120A 1209280A 1284160A 1317920A 1229520A
Fruit excl Melons,Total + (Total)Yield115476Fc121299Fc129828Fc134328Fc138744Fc
Fruit Fresh NesArea Harvested14001Im14114Im13948Im12400F 8961Im
Fruit Fresh NesProduction Quantity97249Im95261Im97969Im95000F 72124Im
Fruit Fresh NesYield69458.6Fc67494Fc70238.7Fc76612.9Fc80486.6Fc
Fruit, tropical fresh nesArea Harvested26622Im27850Im26976Im32000F 28440Im
Fruit, tropical fresh nesProduction Quantity144000F 173000F 201000F 230000F 220000F
Fruit, tropical fresh nesYield54090.6Fc62118.5Fc74510.7Fc71875Fc77355.8Fc
GingerArea Harvested8711091Im1099Im1123Im1107Im
GingerProduction Quantity99662199Im2315Im2431Im2778Im
GingerYield114420Fc20155.8Fc21064.6Fc21647.4Fc25094.8Fc
Grapefruit (inc. pomelos)Area Harvested1307Im1304Im1216Im1200F 1143
Grapefruit (inc. pomelos)Production Quantity8254Im8700P 9524P 8700F 8391
Grapefruit (inc. pomelos)Yield63152.3Fc66717.8Fc78322.4Fc72500Fc73412.1Fc
Groundnuts, with shellArea Harvested238350F 350F 300F 354
Groundnuts, with shellProduction Quantity8031700F 169615811320
Groundnuts, with shellSeed17.92Fc19.04Fc28Fc28Fc24Fc
Groundnuts, with shellYield33739.5Fc48571.4Fc48457.1Fc52700Fc37288.1Fc
Lemons and limesArea Harvested985Im993Im981Im872Im734Im
Lemons and limesProduction Quantity6550Im6004Im5758Im5306Im4899Im
Lemons and limesYield66497.5Fc60463.2Fc58695.2Fc60848.6Fc66743.9Fc
MaizeArea Harvested25000F 25000* 24000* 24000* 23000*
MaizeProduction Quantity80000F 75000* 72000* 72000* 70000*
MaizeSeed155.24Fc587.5Fc587.5Fc564Fc564Fc
MaizeYield32000Fc30000Fc30000Fc30000Fc30434.8Fc
Mangoes, mangosteens, guavasArea Harvested56165805Im5737Im5100F 5083
Mangoes, mangosteens, guavasProduction Quantity2624725043P 20264Im19650F 19570
Mangoes, mangosteens, guavasYield46736.1Fc43140.4Fc35321.6Fc38529.4Fc38500.9Fc
Manila Fibre (Abaca)Area Harvested
Manila Fibre (Abaca)Production Quantity
Manila Fibre (Abaca)Yield
Natural rubberArea Harvested12510001237000127500013150001250000F
Natural rubberProduction Quantity128360011260001168700985600890000
Natural rubberYield10260.6Fc9102.67Fc9166.27Fc7495.06Fc7120Fc
Nutmeg, mace and cardamomsArea Harvested1483Im1638Im1650Im1687Im1663Im
Nutmeg, mace and cardamomsProduction Quantity601Im598Im629Im660Im754Im
Nutmeg, mace and cardamomsYield4052.6Fc3650.79Fc3812.12Fc3912.27Fc4533.97Fc
Oil palm fruitArea Harvested3678000* 3552000* 3402000* 3260000* 3375000*
Oil palm fruitProduction Quantity79400000F 74800000F 69881000F 66775000F 59546000F
Oil palm fruitYield215878Fc210586Fc205412Fc204831Fc176433Fc
Oilcakes Equivalent + (Total)Area Harvested3941520A 3877350A 3682060A 3541580A 3658210A
Oilcakes Equivalent + (Total)Production Quantity2278360A 2197610A 2051430A 2028280A 1847140A
Oilcakes Equivalent + (Total)Seed6.81A 7.24A 10.64A 10.64A 9.12A
Oilcakes Equivalent + (Total)Yield5780.4Fc5667.8Fc5571.41Fc5727.04Fc5049.3Fc
Oilcrops Primary + (Total)Area Harvested3941520A 3877350A 3682060A 3541580A 3658210A
Oilcrops Primary + (Total)Production Quantity17891100A 16904900A 15790600A 15146800A 13550800A
Oilcrops Primary + (Total)Seed5.38A 5.71A 8.4A 8.4A 7.2A
Oilcrops Primary + (Total)Yield45391.3Fc43599.1Fc42885.1Fc42768.3Fc37042.2Fc
Oilseeds, NesArea Harvested148286Im150000F 101713Im102284Im102855Im
Oilseeds, NesProduction Quantity153397Im150000F 161474Im158522Im149977Im
Oilseeds, NesYield10344.7Fc10000Fc15875.5Fc15498.2Fc14581.4Fc
OkraArea Harvested1450F 1450F 1210F 1210F 1210F
OkraProduction Quantity15000F 15000F 12500F 12500F 12500F
OkraYield103448Fc103448Fc103306Fc103306Fc103306Fc
OrangesArea Harvested2046Im1928Im1942Im1631Im1835Im
OrangesProduction Quantity42004Im36270Im33714Im25270Im18540Im
OrangesYield205298Fc188122Fc173605Fc154936Fc101035Fc
Palm kernelsProduction Quantity41250003964000366150036272403268640
Palm oilProduction Quantity1588070014961700139762001335480011909300
PapayasArea Harvested4300F 5400F 7000F 7800F 7000F
PapayasProduction Quantity60000F 65000F 70000F 78000F 70000F
PapayasYield139535Fc120370Fc100000Fc100000Fc100000Fc
Pepper (Piper spp.)Area Harvested1212813400135001380013600
Pepper (Piper spp.)Production Quantity1909219000200002100024000
Pepper (Piper spp.)Yield15742.1Fc14179.1Fc14814.8Fc15217.4Fc17647.1Fc
PineapplesArea Harvested10600F 10300F 10000F 10000F 9980
PineapplesProduction Quantity299318340000F 330000* 320000* 310000F
PineapplesYield282375Fc330097Fc330000Fc320000Fc310621Fc
Pumpkins, squash and gourdsArea Harvested385Im492Im500F 439Im410Im
Pumpkins, squash and gourdsProduction Quantity5300F 5500F 6000F 5200F 5000F
Pumpkins, squash and gourdsYield137662Fc111789Fc120000Fc118451Fc121951Fc
Rice, paddyArea Harvested645000* 676200680700671800678500
Rice, paddyProduction Quantity21870002314000226400022570002197350
Rice, paddySeed19524Fc18705Fc19609.8Fc19740.3Fc19482.2Fc
Rice, paddyYield33907Fc34220.6Fc33259.9Fc33596.3Fc32385.4Fc
Roots and Tubers, nesArea Harvested650F 720F 900F 1200F 1500F
Roots and Tubers, nesProduction Quantity6200F 7000F 8700F 10000F 13500F
Roots and Tubers, nesYield95384.6Fc97222.2Fc96666.7Fc83333.3Fc90000Fc
Roots and Tubers,Total + (Total)Area Harvested5641A 6366A 7144A 8200A 9400A
Roots and Tubers,Total + (Total)Production Quantity104645A 112000A 116573A 129576A 136348A
Roots and Tubers,Total + (Total)Seed1638.9A 1791.9A 1931.4A 2019.6A 2160A
Roots and Tubers,Total + (Total)Yield185508Fc175935Fc163176Fc158020Fc145051Fc
SoybeansArea Harvested
SoybeansProduction Quantity
SoybeansSeed
SoybeansYield
Spices, nesArea Harvested
Spices, nesProduction Quantity
Spices, nesYield
Sugar caneArea Harvested12000* 12000* 12000* 13000* 21228
Sugar caneProduction Quantity1000000F 950000F 950000F 1000000F 1600000F
Sugar caneYield833333Fc791667Fc791667Fc769231Fc753722Fc
Sweet potatoesArea Harvested19912146Im2244Im2400F 2100F
Sweet potatoesProduction Quantity2844527000F 268732657622848
Sweet potatoesSeed1638.9Fc1791.9Fc1931.4Fc2019.6Fc2160Fc
Sweet potatoesYield142868Fc125815Fc119755Fc110733Fc108800Fc
TeaArea Harvested33203500350035003400
TeaProduction Quantity6213285039004125* 5100*
TeaYield18713.9Fc8142.86Fc11142.9Fc11785.7Fc15000Fc
Tobacco, unmanufacturedArea Harvested10650F 13000F 12100F 13000F 10000F
Tobacco, unmanufacturedProduction Quantity8900F 11400F 13850* 13526* 12404
Tobacco, unmanufacturedYield8356.81Fc8769.23Fc11446.3Fc10404.6Fc12404Fc
TomatoesArea Harvested19011300F 1250F 1200F 789
TomatoesProduction Quantity6328235000F 341883236221955
TomatoesYield332888Fc269231Fc273504Fc269683Fc278264Fc
Treenuts,Total + (Total)Area Harvested14423A 13745A 13152A 12960A 12761A
Treenuts,Total + (Total)Production Quantity38508A 35086A 32011A 27282A 23646A
Treenuts,Total + (Total)Yield26699Fc25526.4Fc24339.3Fc21050.9Fc18529.9Fc
Vegetables fresh nesArea Harvested16695Im16325Im19287Im19000F 18500F
Vegetables fresh nesProduction Quantity298689Im308972Im283504Im250000F 240000F
Vegetables fresh nesYield178909Fc189263Fc146992Fc131579Fc129730Fc
Vegetables Primary + (Total)Area Harvested35867A 32946A 35387A 34677A 33399A
Vegetables Primary + (Total)Production Quantity661676A 639107A 598732A 546152A 515425A
Vegetables Primary + (Total)Yield184480Fc193986Fc169195Fc157497Fc154323Fc
Vegetables&Melons, Total + (Total)Area Harvested35867A 32946A 35387A 34677A 33399A
Vegetables&Melons, Total + (Total)Production Quantity661676A 639107A 598732A 546152A 515425A
Vegetables&Melons, Total + (Total)Yield184480Fc193986Fc169195Fc157497Fc154323Fc
WatermelonsArea Harvested82706300F 6300F 6200F 6495
WatermelonsProduction Quantity148909132000F 132000F 130000F 140000F
WatermelonsYield180059Fc209524Fc209524Fc209677Fc215550Fc
Agricultural Production: MT
* = Unofficial figure | A = Aggregate, may include official, semi-official or estimated data | F = FAO estimate | Fc = Calculated data | Im = FAO data based on imputation methodology | M = Data not available | P = Provisional official data

Land Usage

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2011-2007 | 2006-2002
land use20112010200920082007
Agricultural areaArea7870Fm7870Fm7870Fm7870Fm7870Fm
Agricultural area organic, totalArea1.6I 1.6I 1.6I 1.5I
Arable landArea1800Fm1800Fm1800Fm1800Fm1800Fm
Arable land and Permanent cropsArea7585Fm7585Fm7585Fm7585Fm7585Fm
Country areaArea33080Fm33080Fm33080W 33080Q 33080Q
Forest areaArea20369.2Fm20456Q 20542.8Fm20629.6Fm20716.4Fm
Inland waterArea225Fm225Fm225Fm225Fm225Fm
Land areaArea32855Fm32855Fm32855Fm32855Fm32855Fm
Other landArea4615.8Fm4529Fm4442.2Fm4355.4Fm4268.6Fm
Permanent cropsArea5785Fm5785Fm5785Fm5785Fm5785Fm
Permanent meadows and pasturesArea285Fm285Fm285Fm285Fm285Fm
Total area equipped for irrigationArea365Fm365Fm365Fm365Fm365Fm
Agricultural Production: MT
* = Unofficial figure | A = Aggregate, may include official, semi-official or estimated data | F = FAO estimate | Fc = Calculated data | Im = FAO data based on imputation methodology | M = Data not available | P = Provisional official data

2011-2007 | 2006-2002
land use20062005200420032002
Agricultural areaArea7870Fm7870Fm7870Fm7870F 7870F
Agricultural area organic, totalArea2.4I 1.2I
Arable landArea1800Fm1800Fm1800Fm1800F 1800F
Arable land and Permanent cropsArea7585Fm7585Fm7585Fm7585F 7585F
Country areaArea33080Q 33080Q 33080Q 33080Q 33080Q
Forest areaArea20803.2Fm20890Q 21030.2Fm21170.4Fm21310.6Fm
Inland waterArea225Fm225Fm225Fm225Fm225Fm
Land areaArea32855Fm32855Fm32855Fm32855Q 32855Q
Other landArea4181.8Fm4095Fm3954.8Fm3814.6Fm3674.4Fm
Permanent cropsArea5785Fm5785Fm5785Fm5785F 5785F
Permanent meadows and pasturesArea285Fm285Fm285Fm285F 285F
Total area equipped for irrigationArea365Fm365Fm365Fm365F 365F
Agricultural Production: MT
* = Unofficial figure | A = Aggregate, may include official, semi-official or estimated data | F = FAO estimate | Fc = Calculated data | Im = FAO data based on imputation methodology | M = Data not available | P = Provisional official data