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Datasheet

Broussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 October 2015
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Broussonetia papyrifera
  • Preferred Common Name
  • paper mulberry
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • B. papyrifera is a highly invasive species, becoming weedy and difficult to remove after its introduction. Its timber does not have high commercial value. Due to its excessive growth, it has become an agent of change in the whole ecosystem affecting ...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera); tree on farmland
TitleHabit
CaptionPaper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera); tree on farmland
Copyright©K.M. Siddiqui
Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera); tree on farmland
HabitPaper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera); tree on farmland©K.M. Siddiqui
Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera); young tree on farmland.
TitleHabit
CaptionPaper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera); young tree on farmland.
Copyright©K.M. Siddiqui
Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera); young tree on farmland.
HabitPaper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera); young tree on farmland.©K.M. Siddiqui
Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera) growing along roadside in Islamabad, Pakistan. This tree species was once planted to make the city green, however, its invasive tendencies and high pollen production, which can increase asthma symptoms  in sufferers now renders the tree an unwanted floral addition.
TitleHabit
CaptionPaper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera) growing along roadside in Islamabad, Pakistan. This tree species was once planted to make the city green, however, its invasive tendencies and high pollen production, which can increase asthma symptoms in sufferers now renders the tree an unwanted floral addition.
Copyright©Harry C. Evans/CABI E-UK
Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera) growing along roadside in Islamabad, Pakistan. This tree species was once planted to make the city green, however, its invasive tendencies and high pollen production, which can increase asthma symptoms  in sufferers now renders the tree an unwanted floral addition.
HabitPaper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera) growing along roadside in Islamabad, Pakistan. This tree species was once planted to make the city green, however, its invasive tendencies and high pollen production, which can increase asthma symptoms in sufferers now renders the tree an unwanted floral addition.©Harry C. Evans/CABI E-UK
Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera) growing along roadside in Islamabad, Pakistan. This tree species was once planted to make the city green, however, its invasive tendencies and high pollen production, which can increase asthma symptoms  in sufferers now renders the tree an unwanted floral addition.
TitleFoliage
CaptionPaper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera) growing along roadside in Islamabad, Pakistan. This tree species was once planted to make the city green, however, its invasive tendencies and high pollen production, which can increase asthma symptoms in sufferers now renders the tree an unwanted floral addition.
Copyright©Harry C. Evans/CABI E-UK
Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera) growing along roadside in Islamabad, Pakistan. This tree species was once planted to make the city green, however, its invasive tendencies and high pollen production, which can increase asthma symptoms  in sufferers now renders the tree an unwanted floral addition.
FoliagePaper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera) growing along roadside in Islamabad, Pakistan. This tree species was once planted to make the city green, however, its invasive tendencies and high pollen production, which can increase asthma symptoms in sufferers now renders the tree an unwanted floral addition.©Harry C. Evans/CABI E-UK
Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera); close-up of foliage, growing along roadside in Islamabad, Pakistan. This tree species was once planted to make the city green, however, its invasive tendencies and high pollen production, which can increase asthma symptoms  in sufferers now renders the tree an unwanted floral addition.
TitleFoliage
CaptionPaper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera); close-up of foliage, growing along roadside in Islamabad, Pakistan. This tree species was once planted to make the city green, however, its invasive tendencies and high pollen production, which can increase asthma symptoms in sufferers now renders the tree an unwanted floral addition.
Copyright©Harry C. Evans/CABI E-UK
Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera); close-up of foliage, growing along roadside in Islamabad, Pakistan. This tree species was once planted to make the city green, however, its invasive tendencies and high pollen production, which can increase asthma symptoms  in sufferers now renders the tree an unwanted floral addition.
FoliagePaper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera); close-up of foliage, growing along roadside in Islamabad, Pakistan. This tree species was once planted to make the city green, however, its invasive tendencies and high pollen production, which can increase asthma symptoms in sufferers now renders the tree an unwanted floral addition.©Harry C. Evans/CABI E-UK
Small tree
TitleHabit
CaptionSmall tree
Copyright©Li Jiyuan
Small tree
HabitSmall tree©Li Jiyuan
Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera); thicket.
TitleHabit
CaptionPaper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera); thicket.
Copyright©K.M. Siddiqui
Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera); thicket.
HabitPaper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera); thicket.©K.M. Siddiqui
Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera); leaves.
TitleFoliage
CaptionPaper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera); leaves.
Copyright©Li Jiyuan
Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera); leaves.
FoliagePaper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera); leaves.©Li Jiyuan

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L'Herit ex Vent.

Preferred Common Name

  • paper mulberry

Other Scientific Names

  • Morus papyrifera L.
  • Papyrius papyrifera (L.) Kuntze

International Common Names

  • English: papermulberry tree; tapa cloth tree
  • Spanish: moral de la China; morera de papel; morera del papel; papelero
  • French: murier a papier; mûrier à papier
  • Portuguese: amoreira do papel

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Papiermaulbeerbaum
  • Hawaii: po'a'aha; wauke
  • India: kachnar
  • Indonesia: saeh
  • Italy: gelso papirifero del Giappone; moro della China
  • Japan: aka; aka kowso; kename kowso; kodzu; pokasa
  • Myanmar: malaing
  • Pakistan: gul toot
  • Taiwan: lu-a-shu
  • Thailand: por-gra-saa; por-saa; ton-saa
  • Tonga: hiapo

EPPO code

  • BRNPA (Broussonetia papyrifera)

Trade name

  • paper mulberry

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of pageB. papyrifera is a highly invasive species, becoming weedy and difficult to remove after its introduction. Its timber does not have high commercial value. Due to its excessive growth, it has become an agent of change in the whole ecosystem affecting native flora, human beings and causing economic losses.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Urticales
  •                         Family: Moraceae
  •                             Genus: Broussonetia
  •                                 Species: Broussonetia papyrifera

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of pageThe genus Broussonetia was named after P.N.V. Broussonet, a French naturalist, who took a male tree (of B. papyrifera) from a garden in Scotland, UK and introduced it to Paris, France, where a female tree was growing, thus enabling fruit to be described (Parker, 1956). The genus contains 8 species, 7 native to Asia and one to Madagascar.

There are 16 or 17 recognized varieties of the East Asian species B. papyrifera, including five wild varieties.The specific name papyrifera means paper-bearing. The paper made from wild varieties is inferior to that from non-wild varieties (Watt, 1972).

Description

Top of pageB. papyrifera is a medium to large deciduous tree. The crown is round and spreading. It is a hardy, fast-growing tree and under favourable conditions in a hot, moist climate can attain a height of 21 m and a diameter of 70 cm (Luna, 1996). Its stout, grey-brown, spreading branches are brittle and susceptible to wind damage. The branches are marked with stipular scars. Young branchlets are subtomentose and shoots are pubescent when young. The bark is light-grey, smooth, with shallow fissures or ridges. The stem, branches and petioles contain a milky latex (Luna, 1996).

B. papyrifera has variable mulberry-like papery leaves. Some leaves are distinctly deep lobed, while others are unlobed. Several different shapes of leaves may appear on the same shoot. The leaves are alternate/subopposite, ovate, acuminate, dentate-crenate, their bases often oblique, scabrous above, with a woolly surface on the lower side. The leaves are 9.7 x 6.6 cm in size. The petioles are 3-10 cm long and the stipules 1.6-2.0 cm long (Parker, 1956).

B. papyrifera is unisexual and dioecious. The male flower is 3.5-7.5 cm long, yellowish-white, with pendulous catkin-like spikes. The perianth is campanulate, hairy, 4-fid, and its segments are valvate. The female flowers are in rounded clusters in globose pedunculate heads about 1.3 cm in diameter. Persistent, hairy, clavate bracts subtend flowers. The fruit is shiny-reddish, fleshy, globose and compound with the achenes hanging on long fleshy stalks. The achenes are 1-2 cm long and wide.

Plant Type

Top of pagePerennial
Seed propagated
Tree
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

Top of pageB. papyrifera is native to East Asia and is extensively cultivated within its natural range for its bark. Native to China, Taiwan and Japan and possibly native to the Pacific islands of Hawaii and Samoa.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

CountryDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferencesNotes

ASIA

ChinaPresentNative natural Ghafoor, 1985
IndiaPresentIntroduced natural and planted Ghafoor, 1985
IndonesiaPresent planted
JapanPresentNative natural and planted Ghafoor, 1985
Korea, DPRPresent natural
Korea, Republic ofPresent natural
MalaysiaPresent natural and planted
PakistanWidespreadIntroduced natural and planted Ghafoor, 1985
TaiwanPresentNative natural and planted Ghafoor, 1985
ThailandPresent natural and planted

AFRICA

UgandaPresent planted
ZimbabwePresent planted

NORTH AMERICA

USAPresent planted
-FloridaPresentIntroduced natural
-HawaiiPresent natural
-TennesseePresentIntroducedInvasiveSoutheast Exotic Pest Plant Council, 1996

EUROPE

HungaryPresent planted
ItalyWidespreadIntroduced planted Attarado & Trigilia, 1999
SlovakiaPresent planted
SloveniaPresent planted
SpainPresent planted
UkrainePresent planted

OCEANIA

SamoaPresentGhafoor, 1985
Solomon IslandsPresent planted
TongaPresent planted

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of pageB. papyrifera has become naturalized throughout Asia, from India and Pakistan to Thailand, Malaysia and the Pacific Islands, and also in North America. It was introduced to India in 1880 at Saharanpur and by 1924 it had spread to Lahore along irrigation channels and into Shahdara plantation, and it was already predicted that it would become common in the sub-Himalayan tract as well as in the more heavily irrigated portions of the plains especially where there was little other vegetation (Parker, 1956). In Pakistan, paper mulberry was intentionally introduced to make the Islamabad (Capital) and Rawalpindi area green. But in less than 30 years it not only became highly invasive in the natural vegetation but also caused health problems in the human population. It is now commonly found in India and Pakistan from sea level to 1000 m altitude and has become highly invasive and a troublesome weed in many localities. It has been successfully planted in some European countries (Italy, Slovenia, Ukraine, Hungary, Slovakia, Spain) and in the USA. It has been under trial in Tonga, Solomon Islands, Indonesia, Zimbabwe and the subtropical Lake zone of Uganda (Streets, 1962; Erker, 1979; Coiutti, 1993). It has also been introduced in Russia, West Asia, Tropical Africa, Polynesia, the Philippines and many other countries as a venue tree (Abdul Ghafoor, 1985).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Disturbed areasPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areasPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forestsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
RiverbanksPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)

Host Plants/Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Acacia modestaFabaceaeUnknown
Dalbergia sissooFabaceaeUnknown
Morus alba (mora)MoraceaeUnknown
Ziziphus nummularia (lotebush)RhamnaceaeUnknown

Biology and Ecology

Top of pageGenetics

Little work has been done to determine the extent of genetic variation in B. papyrifera for breeding purposes. However, a number of cultivated and wild varieties are recognized in this species. Studies have been carried out on B. papyrifera in Taiwan to determine the variation in seed size and weight, average number of days for germination, and growth of seedlings under different nursery conditions (Lu et al., 1984). Another study analyzed variation in bark colour and the sex segregration of open-pollinated seedlings from various seedlots (Lu, 1985). Larger-scale provenance trials and progeny testing are recommended.

Physiology and Phenology

B. papyrifera is a light demander but can grow under adverse light conditions as well (Bokhari, 1973; Luna, 1996 ). It is a highly invasive species and spreads quickly on newly exposed sites. It spreads by seed, primarily through birds, and by root suckers, which it sends out in great numbers from its superficial roots. It also coppices vigorously.

Following invasion of an area, it excludes other species and it is very difficult to eradicate. If felled and uprooted it can maintain its presence by means of numerous suckers which grow from any portions of root left in the ground (Troup, 1921). Its growth is extremely fast and it quickly out-competes other species. It is frost hardy but does not tolerate drought. It is sensitive to root competition and cannot grow on poor sites with heavy weed and grass growth. It is tolerant of urban pollution (including airborne sulphur dioxide), moisture-sapping wind in hot and dry regions, and nitrogen loading near fertilizer factories (Kovacs and Klincsek, 1982).

In India, leaves are shed between September and January and the new leaves appear in February or March (Watt, 1972). On average, the trees are leafless for one to three months (Luna, 1996). The flowers appear in March-April. The fruit ripens in the rainy season from July to September.

Reproductive Biology

B. papyrifera is insect- and wind-pollinated, and can be grown from seed (sown and self-sown), stem cuttings, coppice and root suckers. Most plantations of this species in India and Pakistan are from self-sown seed, coppice or root suckers. It regenerates freely from seed in moist places where there is not already heavy plant cover, and seedlings can become a problem around mature trees. It can also be readily grown from cuttings, even in December (Parker, 1956). Intensive planting is avoided, however, because the wood is no longer commonly used on a commercial scale (Bokhari, 1973).

Seeds are light and small, with about 540,000 seeds per kilogram. The germination rate of seeds is 50% and the seedling survival rate is 25-30% (Luna, 1996). Seed germination starts three weeks after sowing and is completed within four months. Green immature fruits treated with ethylene at 0.1% concentration for 48 hours at 18°C become ripe and can then be sown in nursery beds. Seeds collected in June usually show a tendency to be dormant for about one month after sowing, indicating a period of after-ripening. Seed dispersed by birds has been observed to germinate readily.

Environmental Requirements

B. papyrifera is native to East Asia with its warm and humid climate, with a temperature range of 0-40°C and with an annual rainfall of up to 2500 mm (Sheikh, 1993). It prefers a sub-humid warm, sub-tropical monsoon climate. The tree is remarkable for the variety of climates in which it can be grown, being hardy enough to survive in Europe. However its growth in cool climates is not as vigorous as in a warm, moist climate (Parker, 1956).

B. papyrifera requires moist, well-drained soil and has been unsuccessful when tried on poor soil. It prefers sandy loams and light soils. Stiff clay and hard laterite soils prevent penetration of the roots to the sub-soil, resulting in stunted growth (Luna, 1996).


Air Temperature

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ParameterLower limitUpper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC)-10
Mean annual temperature (ºC)1230
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC)2540
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC)010

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration34number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall7002500mm; lower/upper limits

Rain Regime

Top of pageBimodal
Summer
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of pageSee Crop Pests and Diseases.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of pageThe fruits of B. papyrifera are consumed by many types of birds and other small animals which are thought to disseminate the seeds. Water may also play a role of dispersal alongside water courses or irrigation channels.

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods)No
Seedlings, Micropropagated plantsNo
Stems (above ground), Shoots, Trunks, BranchesNo
True seeds (inc. grain)No

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collectionsNone
Animal/plant productsNone
Biodiversity (generally)Negative
Crop productionNone
Environment (generally)Negative
Fisheries / aquacultureNone
Forestry productionNone
Human healthNegative
Livestock productionNone
Native faunaNone
Native floraNegative
Rare/protected speciesNone
TourismNone
Trade/international relationsNone
Transport/travelNone

Impact

Top of pageAccording to the Central Development Authorities of Islamabad, Pakistan, the total expenditure on manual removal of B. papyrifera and other weeds is more than US$500,000 per year.

Environmental Impact

Top of pageB. papyrifera has the capability of massive water consumption, a reason why they are more often seen around water, but also slowing the flow of water in channels and suppressing the growth of other plants. These channels not only provide water but also work as a dispersal source for the seeds. The huge canopy of the tree besides covering the outsized area provides shade over the closely growing trees and local shrubs, which creates competition for light, space and water.

Impact: Biodiversity

Top of pageIn Pakistan, direct competition of B. papyrifera limits the growth of the native Dalbergia sissoo, Morus alba and Ziziphus sp., an important source of nectar for honey bees. especially near Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The thick monocultures at different sites have rapidly replaced the native flora and fauna, although these thickets have also become refuges for wild boar and other mammals, and enhanced the build up of the crow population.

Social Impact

Top of pageDuring 1995, the Pakistan Medical Research Council found more than 45% of the allergic patients in Islamabad and Rawalpindi showed positive sensitivity to pollen of B. papyrifera, and was considered extremely important for pollen allergy tests not only because of allergenicity of its pollen, but also for the high quantity of pollen produced and pollen dispersibility. The need to eradicate in Pakistan was based largely on these effects.

In addition, the growth and excessive root systems of B. papyrifera has checked the flow of most of the drains of Nallah Lai near Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan, resulting in increased flood risks, and is considered to have assisted in the worst flood of the history in Rawalpindi where many people died or lost their homes.

The red fleshy fruit tend to attract the birds, especially crows, which become a nuisance for the residents of affected areas.

Risk and Impact Factors

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Impact outcomes

  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Reduced native biodiversity

Invasiveness

  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Proved invasive outside its native range

Likelihood of entry/control

  • Difficult/costly to control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

Top of pageB. papyrifera establishes itself quickly on denuded and degraded sites in the form of a thick tree cover, fixing soils and preventing further erosion of eroded sites because of its dichotomous root system (Luna, 1996). Once established, it spreads quickly to adjacent areas, hence B. papyrifera is not generally recommended for growing on farmland along with field crops. In a trial at Dehra Dun, India, application of chopped leaf mulch of B. papyrifera, at 4 t/ha, improved soil moisture and phosphorus content, and led to increased crop productivity (Tomar et al., 1992).

The wood is light-coloured, soft, greyish-white, even and straight grained. It is light, with a basic density of 506 kg/cubic metre (Luna, 1996). It is not durable. The timber is very weak compared to other commonly used timbers in respect to almost all mechanical properties, either in green or air-dried condition (Gulati et al., 1981). The timber from B. papyrifera, being soft and brittle, is used mainly in the manufacture of cheap furniture, match sticks, packing cases, boxes, plywood, building-boards, sports equipment and pencils (Food Agriculture Organization, 1980; Sheikh, 1993). It is also suitable for production of newsprint, writing and printing papers. It yields rayon grade pulp by a water pre-hydrolysis sulphate process (Guha and Madan, 1964). Pulping trials on B. papyrifera have been conducted in Zimbabwe and Uganda. Other trials have been carried out at the Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar (Suleman and Kausar, 1996). Wood, bark and whole wood of B. papyrifera were pulped by kraft, soda, and alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping (APMP). Kraft pulp from wood was found to have the best strength properties, but yields were highest with the APMP process.

Bast fibre from B. papyrifera is used for tapa in the South Sea Islands and for special paper making, such as paper napkins, lens paper, cosmetic tissue and luxurious hand-made paper in Japan, Thailand, Myanmar, Indonesia etc.

In Japan, B. papyrifera is extensively used for manufacture of pulp and extremely strong and high quality paper (Bhat and Guha, 1952; Streets, 1962; Nicolas and Navarro, 1964; Danaatmadja, 1992; Food Agriculture Organization, 1980). The shoots are cut into small pieces and steamed, the bark is then stripped off and the outer dark portion scraped off for coarser quality paper. The inner finer parts are washed, kneaded, bleached in the sun, and then boiled in lye and pounded into pulp. However, the material cannot be widely used for large scale manufacture of pulp and paper unless an economical method of removing the outer bark is found. In Myanmar, papier-mâché school slates are made from the bark (Watt, 1972). There are 16 or 17 recognized varieties of B. papyrifera, including five wild varieties.The paper made from wild varieties is inferior to that from non-wild varieties. This is due to differences in fibre length, cell wall thickness, lumen diameter, etc. (Watt, 1972).

B. papyrifera can be lopped for fodder. In a study in Taiwan, the leaves were studied for digestiblity. Of the various components, 67.7% of dry matter was digestible, crude protein 84.8%, crude fibre 65.5%, crude fat 35.0% and ash 50.3% (Lin et al., 1996). B. papyrifera seedlings and saplings are browsed by cattle. The leaves are also used for feeding silkworms. The chemical constituents of B. papyrifera have medicinal (antiplatelet) properties for humans (Fang et al; 1995; Lin et al., 1996).

It has also been investigated for its properties as a pesticide. The leaf powder of B. papyrifera when fed to Helicoverpa armigera caused restriction in its pupation and adult emergence (Anwar et al., 1992). The xylem contains an antifungal substance (against Fusarium spp.) (Shirata and Takahashi, 1979).

Uses List

Top of page

Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Invertebrate food for silkworms

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Revegetation
  • Shade and shelter
  • Soil improvement
  • Windbreak

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

General

  • Ornamental

Materials

  • Carved material
  • Fibre
  • Miscellaneous materials
  • Pesticide
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Wood Products

Top of pageBoxes
Carpentry/joinery (exterior/interior)
Cases
Containers
Crates
For light construction
Furniture
Long-fibre pulp
Matches
Pencils
Plywood
Pulp
Sawn or hewn building timbers
Short-fibre pulp
Sports equipment
Wood-based materials
Woodware

Prevention and Control

Top of pagePlans to manually eradicate B. papyrifera have met with limited success because of gregarious vegetative reproduction and its invasive nature through seeds. Newly sprouted shoots from tree stumps and suckers are cut and burnt, being replaced by higher quality native timber trees, however this is not an effective method. The most common techniques are manual control methods, by hand pulling, hand picking, cutting, etc., but are not enough for complete management of the tree. Biological control has not yet been used for control of B. papyrifera, it may be the most appropriate way through selection and introduction of a suitable biological control agent.

References

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Anwar T, Jabbar A, Khalique F, Tahir S, Shakeel MA, 1992. Plants with insecticidal activities against four major insect pests in Pakistan. Tropical Pest Management, 38(4):431-437

Backer CA, Bakhuizen van den Brink RC, 1965. Flora of Java. Vol. 2: 150. Groningen, Netherlands: NVP Noordhoff.

Bhat RV, Guha SR, 1952. Indigenous cellulosic raw materials for the production of pulp, paper and board. Part VI. Writing and printing papers from Paper Mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera) Indian Forester, 78 (2), 93-99. 3 refs.

Bokhari AS, 1973. Revised working plan of Changa Manga plantation (Kasur Forest Division). Lahore, India: Government Printing.

Burkhill IH, 1935. A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula. Vol. I. Malaya: Dept. of Agric.

Coiutti C, 1993. Phytoseiid mites on wild and cultivated trees in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region. Frustula Entomologica, 16:65-77; 38 ref.

Danaatmadja O, 1992. Saeh (Broussonetia papyrifera Vent.) as raw material for luxurious hand-made paper. [Saeh (Broussonetia papyrifera Vent.) sebagai bahan baku kertas mewah.] Duta Rimba, 18(141-142):14-17.

Erker R, 1979. Rare tree species in our parks and plantations. [Redke drevesne vrste v nasih parkih in nasadih.] Gozdarski Vestnik, 37(2):58-62; 12 ref.

Fang SC, Shieh BJ, Wu RR, Lin CN, 1995. Isoprenylated flavonols of Formosan Broussonetia papyrifera. Phytochemistry, 38(2):535-537; 9 ref.

Food and Agriculture Organization, Forestry Department, 1980. Pulping and paper-making properties of fast-growing plantation wood species. 2 vols. FAO Forestry Paper, No. 19, 472 + 392 pp.; Vol. 2: ISBN 92-5-100866-3; 204 ref.

Guha SRD, Madan RN, 1964. Viscose rayon pulp from paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera) by water prehydrolysis sulphate process. Indian Pulp & Paper, XVIII(12).

Gulati AS, Singh KR, Subrahmanyam A, 1981. A note on the physical and mechanical properties of Broussonetia papyrifera from the New Forest, Dehra Dun. Indian Journal of Forestry, 4(1):37-42; 8 ref.

Kovacs M, Klincsek P, 1982. Effect of nitrogen loading on trees and shrubs. [Nitrogenterheles hatasa a fakra es cserjekre.] Botanikai Kozlemenyek, 69(1-2):95-104.

Liao JC, 1989. A taxonomic revision of the family Moraceae in Taiwan. (3). Genera Humulus, Maclura, Malaisia and Morus. Quarterly Journal of The Experimental Forest of National Taiwan University, 3(1):153-158; 22 ref.

Lin ChunNan, Lu ChaiMing, Lin HsienCheng, Fang SongChwan, Shieh BorJinn, Hsu MeiFeng, Wang JinPyang, Ko FengNien, Teng CheMing, 1996. Novel antiplatelet constituents from Formosan Moraceous plants. Journal of Natural Products, 59(9):834-838; 15 ref.

Lu CM, 1985. Study on the variations of Broussonetia papyrifera (3) Variations of bark color and sexuality segregrations of open pollinated seedlings from various seed-lots. Bulletin, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, No. 452, 11 pp.; En tables; 8 ref.

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Distribution Maps

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Distribution map China: Present, nativeChina: Present, nativeSpain: PresentSpain: PresentHungary: PresentIndonesia: PresentIndonesia: PresentIndia: Present, introducedItaly: Widespread, introducedJapan: Present, nativeKorea, DPR: PresentKorea, Republic of: PresentMalaysia: PresentPakistan: Widespread, introducedSolomon Islands: PresentSlovenia: PresentSlovakia: PresentThailand: PresentTonga: PresentTaiwan: Present, nativeTaiwan: Present, nativeUkraine: PresentUkraine: PresentUganda: PresentUSA: PresentUSA: PresentUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countryUSA
See regional map for distribution within the countrySamoa: PresentZimbabwe: Present
  • = Present, no further details
  • = Evidence of pathogen
  • = Widespread
  • = Last reported
  • = Localised
  • = Presence unconfirmed
  • = Confined and subject to quarantine
  • = See regional map for distribution within the country
  • = Occasional or few reports
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Distribution map (asia) China: Present, nativeIndonesia: PresentIndia: Present, introducedJapan: Present, nativeKorea, DPR: PresentKorea, Republic of: PresentMalaysia: PresentPakistan: Widespread, introducedThailand: PresentTaiwan: Present, nativeUkraine: Present
Distribution map (europe) Spain: PresentHungary: PresentItaly: Widespread, introducedSlovenia: PresentSlovakia: PresentUkraine: Present
Distribution map (africa) Spain: PresentUganda: PresentZimbabwe: Present
Distribution map (north america) USA: PresentFlorida: Present, introducedHawaii: PresentTennessee: Present, introduced, invasive
Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council, 1996
Distribution map (central america) USA: PresentFlorida: Present, introduced
Distribution map (south america)
Distribution map (pacific) China: Present, nativeIndonesia: PresentSolomon Islands: PresentTonga: PresentTaiwan: Present, nativeSamoa: Present