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CABI Book Chapter

Bt resistance: characterization and strategies for GM crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis toxins.

Book cover for Bt resistance: characterization and strategies for GM crops producing <i xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">Bacillus thuringiensis</i> toxins.

Description

This book focuses on descriptions of the extent of use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops and the emerging problem of resistance, recent progress in elucidating the mechanism of action of Bt toxins and describing the different resistance mechanisms and strategies for coping with resistance in the field. There are four sections. In the first section ('The extent of use of Bt crops and the emergin...

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Chapter 6 (Page no: 56)

Different models of the mode of action of Bt 3d-Cry toxins.

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces insecticidal proteins that are active against different insect orders. In particular, the family of the three domain-Cry toxins (3d-Cry) have important applications in controlling insect pests as spray products or in transgenic Bt plants. At least three different models account for the mode of action of these proteins. Two of them are based on the pore formation activity of the toxin and propose that larvae are killed by osmotic shock to their midgut cells. Differences in these models are related to the processes of receptor interactions and membrane insertion. The third model proposes that midgut cells are killed through a signal transduction mechanism that is triggered after the binding of 3d-Cry toxins to a cadherin receptor. In this chapter, we will review these models in light of the different resistance mechanisms to Cry toxins that have been documented so far in several insect species.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 1) Successes and failures of transgenic Bt crops: global patterns of field-evolved resistance. Author(s): Tabashnik, B. E. Carrière, Y.
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 15) Status of resistance to Bt cotton in China: cotton bollworm and pink bollworm. Author(s): Gao YuLin Liu ChenXi Wu YiDong Wu KongMing
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 26) Insect resistance to Bt toxins in Brazil and Latin America. Author(s): Monnerat, R. Martins, E. Queiroz, P. Praça, L. Soares, C. M.
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 36) Resistance of Busseola fusca to Cry1Ab Bt maize plants in South Africa and challenges to insect resistance management in Africa. Author(s): Berg, J. van den Campagne, P.
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 49) Resistance of cabbage loopers to Btk in a greenhouse setting: occurrence, spread and management. Author(s): Janmaat, A. Franklin, M. Myers, J. H.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 69) Roles of insect midgut cadherin in Bt intoxication and resistance. Author(s): Fabrick, J. A. Wu YiDong
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 87) Mechanism of Cry1Ac resistance in cabbage loopers - a resistance mechanism selected in insect populations in an agricultural environment. Author(s): Wang, P.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 98) Roles of ABC proteins in the mechanism and management of Bt resistance. Author(s): Heckel, D. G.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 107) The role of proteolysis in the biological activity of Bt insecticidal crystal proteins. Author(s): Zalunin, I. A. Elpidina, E. N. Oppert, B.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 119) The lessons that Caenorhabditis elegans has taught us about the mechanism of action of crystal proteins. Author(s): Sitaram, A. Aroian, R. V.
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 126) The development and prospect of discovery of Bt toxin genes. Author(s): Zhang Jie Shu ChangLong Wang ZeYu
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 138) Cry toxin binding site models and their use in strategies to delay resistance evolution. Author(s): Jakka, S. Ferré, J. Jurat-Fuentes, J. L.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 150) Countering pest resistance with genetically modified Bt toxins. Author(s): Soberón, M. García-Gómez, B. I. Pacheco, S. Sánchez, J. Tabashnik, B. E. Bravo, A.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 162) RNA interference strategy for crop protection against insect pests. Author(s): Sneha Yogindran Rajam, M. V.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 173) Resistance management for Bt maize and above-ground lepidopteran targets in the USA: from single gene to pyramided traits. Author(s): Huang, F. N.
Chapter: 17 (Page no: 186) Insect resistance management and integrated pest management for Bt crops: prospects for an area-wide view. Author(s): Hutchison, W. D.