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CABI Book Chapter

Climate change and crop production.

Book cover for Climate change and crop production.

Description

This book comprehensively addresses the impact of climate change on crop productivity and approaches to adapt to both biotic and abiotic stresses as well as approaches to reduce greenhouse gases. The predictions of climate change and its impact on crop productivity, adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses through crop breeding, sustainable and resource-conserving technologies for adaptation to a...

Chapter 4 (Page no: 50)

Preventing potential disease and pest epidemics under a changing climate.

For a disease or pest to cause yield losses, the host and pathogen or pest must coincide within a favourable environment. With changing weather patterns and cropping systems, abiotic and biotic components influencing potential epidemics are modified and new interactions occur. Since they affect plant phenology and the survival and multiplication rates of microorganisms and insects, temperature and humidity are key factors of epidemics. The incidence of pathogens and pests has noticeably evolved in recent years; globalization, in particular, has increased threats from new transboundary pests and diseases. Factors driving new outbreaks include extraordinary climatic events and trends in temperature selecting pathogens and their natural enemies towards new critical thresholds for inoculum survival. Disease cycle components such as survival, infection, colonization processes and latency period, in addition to production and dispersal of inoculum, are all affected. Climate is most likely a strong driver of evolutionary change in plant and pathogen populations by interfering with host-pathogen interactions, gene expression and population dynamics. Disease monitoring and identifying the parameters affecting pest outbreaks improve epidemic risk assessment and knowledge of the enemy. Strategies to prevent the negative effects of pests and diseases include stringent quarantine regulations, adopting cropping systems that favour biocontrol or avoidance and, most importantly, resistance breeding, cultural practices and sound phytosanitary measures. This review highlights recent changes in microbial communities and the evolution of selected pathosystems encompassing small grains, tubers and agroforestry. The value and effectiveness of integrated crop management and sustainable approaches for controlling potential new disease and pest epidemics, in the context of climate change, are emphasized.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 1) Adapting crops to climate change: a summary. Author(s): Reynolds, M. P. Ortiz, R.
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 9) Scenarios of climate change within the context of agriculture. Author(s): Jarvis, A. Ramirez, J. Anderson, B. Leibing, C. Aggarwal, P.
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 38) Economic impacts of climate change on agriculture to 2030. Author(s): Lobell, D. Burke, M.
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 71) Breeding for adaptation to heat and drought stress. Author(s): Reynolds, M. P. Hays, D. Chapman, S.
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 92) Breeding crops for tolerance to salinity, waterlogging and inundation. Author(s): Mullan, D. J. Barrett-Lennard, E. G.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 115) Multi-location testing as a tool to identify plant response to global climate change. Author(s): Braun, H. J. Atlin, G. Payne, T.
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 139) Genetic approaches to reduce greenhouse gas emissions: increasing carbon capture and decreasing environmental impact. Author(s): Parry, M. A. J. Hawkesford, M. J.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 151) Greenhouse gas mitigation in the main cereal systems: rice, wheat and maize. Author(s): Ortiz-Monasterio, I. Wassmann, R. Govaerts, B. Hosen, Y. Katayanagi, N. Verhulst, N.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 177) How conservation agriculture can contribute to buffering climate change. Author(s): Hobbs, P. R. Govaerts, B.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 200) Management of resident soil microbial community structure and function to suppress soilborne disease development. Author(s): Mazzola, M.
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 219) Biotechnology in agriculture. Author(s): Whitford, R. Gilbert, M. Langridge, P.
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 245) GIS and crop simulation modelling applications in climate change research. Author(s): Hodson, D. White, J.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 263) Statistical models for studying and understanding genotype × environment interaction in an era of climate change and increased genetic information. Author(s): Crossa, J. Burgueño, J. Vargas, M.