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CABI Book Chapter

Introgression from genetically modified plants into wild relatives.

Book cover for Introgression from genetically modified plants into wild relatives.

Description

Introgression is the incorporation of a gene from one organism complex into another as a result of hybridization. A major concern with the use of genetically modified (GM) plants is the unintentional spread of the new genes from cultivated plants to their wild relatives and the subsequent impacts on the ecology of wild plants and their associated flora and fauna. The book reviews these issues, foc...

Chapter 2 (Page no: 7)

Hybridization in nature: lessons for the introgression of transgenes into wild relatives.

Many factors determine the chance of transfer of genes from crops to wild relatives: the distance and divergence between them, the extent of gene flow, and the fitness of hybrids. The spectrum of genes that can be transferred to a target species by genetic modification is much wider than that of traditional breeding, and the effects of gene exchange between GM crops and wild relatives may therefore be quite different. Important questions need to be answered: could the transgene escape and, if so, will it stay confined to the initial hybrids, for instance due to hybrid inviability or infertility? Or will it introgress into the wild relative, perhaps changing the genetic diversity of the wild species? What is the phenotypic effect of the transgene, and is it something entirely new to the recipient plant? Does it increase the fitness of F1 hybrids, backcrosses and later generations? Will the transgene stay intact and functional or will changes take place? The focus of this chapter is to see what we know of hybridization in nature, in order to identify what factors determine the exchange of genes between and within plant species and the success of hybrids. The goal is to identify the main processes involved, and see what this tells us about the study of the potential risks of escape of transgenes from GM crops to wild relatives. Although hybrids are present in many taxa, natural hybridization as a speciation mode is subject to discussion, except when it is coupled to polyploidization. It is also evident that a lot of baseline data on putative recipient wild relatives is still missing, hampering the evaluation of the risks of introgression of genes from GM crops to wild relatives.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 1) Introduction and the AIGM research project. Author(s): Sweet, J. Nijs, H. C. M. den Bartsch, D.
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 27) Introgressive hybridization between invasive and native plant species - a case study in the genus Rorippa (Brassicaceae). Author(s): Bleeker, W.
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 41) Hybrids between cultivated and wild carrots: a life history. Author(s): Hauser, T. P. Bjørn, G. K. Magnussen, L. Shim SangIn
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 53) Gene exchange between wild and crop in Beta vulgaris: how easy is hybridization and what will happen in later generations? Author(s): Dijk, H. van
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 63) Hybridization between wheat and wild relatives, a European Union research programme. Author(s): Jacot, Y. Ammann, K. Al-Mazyad, P. R. Chueca, C. David, J. Gressel, J. Loureiro, I. Wang HaiBo Benavente, E.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 75) Molecular genetic assessment of the potential for gene escape in strawberry, a model perennial study crop. Author(s): Westman, A. L. Medel, S. Spira, T. P. Rajapakse, S. Tonkyn, D. W. Abbott, A. G.
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 89) Gene flow in forest trees: gene migration patterns and landscape modelling of transgene dispersal in hybrid poplar. Author(s): Slavov, G. T. DiFazio, S. P. Strauss, S. H.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 107) Implications for hybridization and introgression between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and wild turnip (B. rapa) from an agricultural perspective. Author(s): Norris, C. Sweet, J. Parker, J. Law, J.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 125) Asymmetric gene flow and introgression between domesticated and wild populations. Author(s): Papa, R. Gepts, P.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 139) Crop to wild gene flow in rice and its ecological consequences. Author(s): Lu BaoRong Song ZhiPing Chen JiaKuan
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 151) Potential for gene flow from herbicide-resistant GM soybeans to wild soya in the Russian Far East. Author(s): Dorokhov, D. Ignatov, A. Deineko, E. Serjapin, A. Ala, A. Skryabin, K.
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 163) Analysis of gene flow in the lettuce crop-weed complex. Author(s): Wiel, C. van de Flavell, A. Syed, N. Antonise, R. Voort, J. R. van der Linden, G. van der
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 173) Introgression of cultivar beet genes to wild beet in the Ukraine. Author(s): Slyvchenko, O. Bartsch, D.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 183) Crop-wild interaction within the Beta vulgaris complex: a comparative analysis of genetic diversity between seabeet and weed beet populations within the French sugarbeet production area. Author(s): Cuguen, J. Arnaud, J. F. Delescluse, M. Viard, F.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 203) Crop-wild interaction within the Beta vulgaris complex: agronomic aspects of weed beet in the Czech Republic. Author(s): Soukup, J. Holec, J.
Chapter: 17 (Page no: 219) A protocol for evaluating the ecological risks associated with gene flow from transgenic crops into their wild relatives: the case of cultivated sunflower and wild Helianthus annuus. Author(s): Pilson, D. Snow, A. A. Rieseberg, L. H. Alexander, H. M.
Chapter: 18 (Page no: 235) A review on interspecific gene flow from oilseed rape to wild relatives. Author(s): Chèvre, A. M. Ammitzbøll, H. Breckling, B. Dietz-Pfeilstetter, A. Eber, F. Fargue, A. Gomez-Campo, C. Jenczewski, E. Jørgensen, R. Lavigne, C. Meier, M. S. Nijs, H. C. M. den Pascher, K. Seguin-Swartz, G. Sweet, J. Stewart, C. N., Jr. Warwick, S.
Chapter: 19 (Page no: 253) Gene introgression and consequences in Brassica. Author(s): Jørgensen, R. B. Ammitzbøll, H. Hansen, L. B. Johannessen, M. Andersen, B. Hauser, T. P.
Chapter: 20 (Page no: 263) Transgene expression and genetic introgression associated with the hybridization of GFP transgenic canola (Brassica napus L.) and wild accessions of bird rape (Brassica rapa L.). Author(s): Halfhill, M. D. Warwick, S. I. Stewart, C. N., Jr.
Chapter: 21 (Page no: 279) Insect-resistant transgenic plants and their environmental impact. Author(s): Hails, R. S. Raymond, B.
Chapter: 22 (Page no: 297) Risk assessment of genetically modified undomesticated plants. Author(s): Wennström, A.
Chapter: 23 (Page no: 309) A tiered approach to risk assessment of virus resistance traits based on studies with wild brassicas in England. Author(s): Pallett, D. W. Thurston, M. I. Edwards, M. L. Naylor, M. Wang Hui Alexander, M. Gray, A. J. Mitchell, E. Raybould, A. F. Walsh, J. A. Cooper, J. I.
Chapter: 24 (Page no: 323) Environmental and agronomic consequences of herbicide-resistant (HR) canola in Canada. Author(s): Warwick, S. I. Beckie, H. J. Simard, M. J. Légère, A. Nair, H. Séguin-Swartz, G.
Chapter: 25 (Page no: 339) Prospects of a hybrid distribution map between GM Brassica napus and wild B. rapa across the UK. Author(s): Wilkinson, M. Elliott, L. Allainguillaume, J. Norris, C. Welters, R. Alexander, M. Cuccato, G. Sweet, J. Shaw, M. Mason, D.
Chapter: 26 (Page no: 351) Potential and limits of modelling to predict the impact of transgenic crops in wild species. Author(s): Lavigne, C. Devaux, C. Deville, A. Garnier, A. Klein, É. K. Lecomte, J. Pivard, S. Gouyon, P. H.
Chapter: 27 (Page no: 365) Introgression of GM plants and the EU guidance note for monitoring. Author(s): Nijs, H. C. M. den Bartsch, D.

Chapter details

  • Author Affiliation
  • Department of Experimental Plant Systematics, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 318, 10985M Amsterdam, Netherlands.
  • ISBN
  • 085199816X
  • Record Number
  • 20093009102