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CABI Book Chapter

Seed dispersal: theory and its application in a changing world.

Book cover for Seed dispersal: theory and its application in a changing world.

Description

The chapters of this book on seed dispersal are divided into four parts: (1) frugivores and frugivory (8 chapters); (2) seed and seedling shadows (7 chapters); (3) seed fate and establishment (eight chapters); and (4) management implications and conservation (six chapters). The book presents both recent advances and reviews of current knowledge.

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Chapter 8 (Page no: 178)

Ecological redundancy in seed dispersal systems: a comparison between manakins (Aves: Pipridae) in two tropical forests.

A study was conducted to measure the redundancy in seed dispersers based on overlap in species consumed and overlap in environments that dispersers occupy and, presumably, disseminate seeds into. The results were compared from species-rich forests in eastern Ecuador to those from Costa Rica, which although biologically diverse, are less so than Amazonian forests. The focus was on manakins (Pipridae), which are the predominant arboreal frugivores in the understorey of these two forests. The analyses were restricted to manakins, which are the numerically dominant frugivores captured in mist-nets at these sites, to control, in part, for potential effects of phylogeny on fruit selection. A total of 81 species of plants in the diets of Pipra mentalis and Corapipo altera in old-growth forests of Costa Rica were recorded. The niche overlap between these two manakins was 0.874. Eighty-five species of plants in the diets of the four species of manakins in Ecuador were recorded. A significantly greater niche overlap was found. In old-growth forest of La Selva, 181 Corapipo altera and 470 Pipra mentalis were captured between 1985 and 1993. When the distribution of captures as a function of forest environments were compared, P. mentalis was captured more frequently in ridge habitats, while C. altera was captured more frequently in valley bottoms and other low-lying habitats within the sample area. In Ecuador, the relative abundance of manakins captured on the two 100-ha study plots differed; Lepidothrix coronata was the most frequently captured manakin on both plots. The results suggest that although manakins may differ in the spatial dissemination of seeds, seeds are expected to arrive into similar forest environments. Thus, there appears to be a considerable ecological redundancy among species of Ecuadorian manakins in the forest environments where seeds are disseminated; a qualitative component of disperser effectiveness. However, as observed in diet overlap, P. filicauda was the most distinct of the four species in terms of forest environments frequented.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 5) Seed allometry and disperser assemblages in tropical rainforests: a comparison of four floras on different continents. Author(s): Forget, P. M. Dennis, A. J. Mazer, S. J. Jansen, P. A. Kitamura, S. Lambert, J. E. Westcott, D. A.
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 37) Evolutionary ecology of secondary compounds in ripe fruit: case studies with capsaicin and emodin. Author(s): Levey, D. J. Tewksbury, J. J. Izhaki, I. Tsahar, E. Haak, D. C.
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 59) The evolution of visual fruit signals: concepts and constraints. Author(s): Schaefer, H. M. Schaefer, V.
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 78) A review on the role of endozoochory in seed germination. Author(s): Traveset, A. Robertson, A. W. Rodríguez-Pérez, J.
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 104) Living in the land of ghosts: fruit traits and the importance of large mammals as seed dispersers in the Pantanal, Brazil. Author(s): Donatti, C. I. Galetti, M. Pizo, M. A. Guimarães, P. R., Jr. Jordano, P.
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 124) The importance of lizards as frugivores and seed dispersers. Author(s): Valido, A. Olesen, J. M.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 148) Fleshy-fruited plants and frugivores in desert ecosystems. Author(s): Bronstein, J. L. Izhaki, I. Nathan, R. Tewksbury, J. J. Spiegel, O. Lotan, A. Altstein, O.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 201) Estimating dispersal kernels produced by a diverse community of vertebrates. Author(s): Dennis, A. J. Westcott, D. A.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 229) Frugivores, seeds and genes: analysing the key elements of seed shadows. Author(s): Jordano, P.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 252) Total dispersal kernels and the evaluation of diversity and similarity in complex dispersal systems. Author(s): Nathan, R.
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 277) How far do offspring recruit from parent plants? A molecular approach to understanding effective dispersal. Author(s): Hardesty, B. D.
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 300) Using toucan-generated dispersal models to estimate seed dispersal in Amazonian Ecuador. Author(s): Holbrook, K. M. Loiselle, B. A.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 322) Linking seed and seedling shadows: a case study in the oaks (Quercus). Author(s): Steele, M. A. Carlson, J. E. Smallwood, P. D. McEuen, A. B. Contreras, T. A. Terzaghi, W. B.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 340) Estimates of the number of seeds dispersed by a population of primates in a lowland forest in Western Amazonia. Author(s): Stevenson, P. R.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 369) Plant-frugivore interactions as spatially explicit networks: integrating frugivore foraging with fruiting plant spatial patterns. Author(s): Carlo, T. A. Aukema, J. E. Morales, J. M.
Chapter: 17 (Page no: 391) An empirical approach to analysing the demographic consequences of seed dispersal by frugivores. Author(s): Godínez-Alvarez, H. Jordano, P.
Chapter: 18 (Page no: 407) How seed dispersal affects interactions with specialized natural enemies and their contribution to the maintenance of diversity. Author(s): Muller-Landau, H. C. Adler, F. R.
Chapter: 19 (Page no: 427) Out of one shadow and into another: causes and consequences of spatially contagious seed dispersal by frugivores. Author(s): Kwit, C. Levey, D. J. Turner, S. A. Clark, C. J. Poulsen, J. R.
Chapter: 20 (Page no: 445) The suitability of a site for seed dispersal is context-dependent. Author(s): Schupp, E. W.
Chapter: 21 (Page no: 463) Mycorrhizal plants and vertebrate seed and spore dispersal: incorporating mycorrhizas into the seed dispersal paradigm. Author(s): Theimer, T. C. Gehring, C. A.
Chapter: 22 (Page no: 479) The influence of seed source, habitat and fungi on Cecropia seed survival in two neotropical forests. Author(s): Gallery, R. E. Dalling, J. W. Wolfe, B. T. Arnold, A. E.
Chapter: 23 (Page no: 499) Determinants of tree species distributions: comparing the roles of dispersal, seed size and soil specialization in a Bornean rainforest. Author(s): Russo, S. E. Potts, M. D. Davies, S. J. Tan, S.
Chapter: 24 (Page no: 523) Pollination or seed dispersal: which should we worry about most? Author(s): Corlett, R. T.
Chapter: 25 (Page no: 545) Do seed dispersers matter? A biogeographical approach. Author(s): Böhning-Gaese, K.
Chapter: 26 (Page no: 561) Investigating fragility in plant-frugivore networks: a case study of the Atlantic Forest in Brazil. Author(s): Silva, W. R. Guimarães Júnior, P. R. Reis, S. F. dos Guimarães, P.
Chapter: 27 (Page no: 579) Refining the conservation management of seed-dispersing frugivores and their fruits: examples from Australia. Author(s): Green, R. J.
Chapter: 28 (Page no: 599) Seed dispersal in anthropogenic landscapes. Author(s): Wright, S. J.
Chapter: 29 (Page no: 615) Frugivory by birds in degraded areas of Brazil. Author(s): Pizo, M. A.