Insect transgenesis promises improvements in agriculture, pharmaceuticals and public health. Many important insects can now be routinely transformed with effectors that have useful applications. Agriculture presents the largest market for transgenic insects and has a foundational history of success with sterile insect technique for control of pests including Mediterranean fruit flies and screwworms. Biotechnology will contribute superior markers, suppressible sterility and sex-conversion. Public health is also seeing transgenic mosquitoes developed which suppress natural populations and are incapable of transmitting disease. Experts in the field will contribute their insights into the latest technology and its applications. Authors will also consider the larger risks, social and economic aspects of transgenic insects whose value must be proven in political, regulatory and public acceptance arenas.